Incorporating B cell activating factor (BAFF) into the membrane of rabies virus (RABV) particles improves the speed and magnitude of vaccine-induced antibody responses

by Joseph R. Plummer, James P. McGettigan B cell activating factor (BAFF) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines that links innate with adaptive immunity. BAFF signals through receptors on B cells, making it an attractive molecule to potentiate vaccine-induced B cell responses. We hypothesized that a rabie s virus (RABV)-based vaccine displaying both antigen and BAFF on the surface of the same virus particle would target antigen-specific B cells for activation and improve RABV-specific antibody responses. To test this hypothesis, we constructed a recombinant RABV-based vector expressing virus membrane -anchored murine BAFF (RABV-ED51-mBAFF). BAFF was incorporated into the RABV particle and determined to be biologically functional, as demonstrated by increased B cell survival of primary murine B cells treatedex-vivo with RABV-ED51-mBAFF. B cell survival was inhibited by pre-treating RABV-ED51-mBAFF with an antibody that blocks BAFF functions. RABV-ED51-mBAFF also activated primary murine B cellsex-vivo more effectively than RABV as shown by significant upregulation of CD69, CD40, and MHCII on the surface of infected B cells.In-vivo, RABV-ED51-mBAFF induced significantly faster and higher virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers than RABV while not adversely affecting the longevity of the vaccine-induced antibody response. Since BAFF was incorporated into the virus particle and genome replication was not required for BAFF expressionin-vivo, we ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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This study showed that the immune fingerprint approach can be used to screen vaccine formulations. It provides additional information compared to classical vaccination and infectious challenge efficacy study.
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract Rabies virus is an enveloped negative-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae. It can be successfully controlled by vaccination however, there are still tens of thousands of deaths each year caused by rabies virus due to its mutations and complexity. A better understanding of the interaction between the rabies virus and the host might help solve this problem. Therefore, in this study, we used two-dimensional electrophoresis to investigate the protein expression of rabies virus-infected mice. This can help us to understand the impact of rabies virus on host protein expression during infect...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
​Fingertip injuries and amputations are common in the emergency department, often occurring on weekends when consultants are not available. Some experienced physicians may consider rongeuring distal tuft amputation injuries, but simple closure and expert consultation for more difficult cases are suggested.A fingertip amputation within zone III involving total amputation of the distal tip, fingernail, matrix, and tuft. Photos by M. Roberts.Care of fingertip amputations in the ED should focus on removing debris and cleaning the wound as best as possible, closing the wound using available skin, bandaging and splinting for c...
Source: The Procedural Pause - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: blogs
This article provides information on these and other travel vaccinations against hepatitis A, typhoid fever, rabies, Japanese encephalitis and cholera.Yellow fever endemic areas are located in Africa and in South America; there is no yellow fever in Asia. The meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Additionally, it is recommended for travellers visiting the African "meningitis belt" during the dry season. A polio booster is required for countries with endemic wild-type polio virus (WPV) or circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV).Hepatitis A is a common vaccine-prev...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
In conclusion, our results demonstrate that MPLA serving as an adjuvant enhances the intensity of humoral immune responses by activating the cDC–Tfh–GC B axis. Our findings will contribute to the improvement of the efficiency of traditional rabies vaccines.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
by Bruce A. Kimball, Steven F. Volker, Doreen L. Griffin, Shylo R. Johnson, Amy T. Gilbert Rabies is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with rabies virus, which circulates naturally in several wild carnivore and bat reservoirs in the United States (US). The most important reservoir in the US from an animal and public health perspective is the raccoon (Procyon lotor). To prevent the westward expansion of a significant raccoon rabies epizootic along the eastern seaboard, an operational control program implementing oral rabies vaccination (ORV) has existed in the US since the 1990s. Recently, two vaccine efficacy studies...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsWithout strong surveillance systems, rabies-free countries are vulnerable to becoming endemic when incursions happen. To prevent this, it may be necessary to vaccinate at least 38% to 56% of the susceptible dog population depending on the risk of reintroduction and transmission dynamics.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
World-leading vaccine scientists from the University of Bristol are working with one of Vietnam's major vaccine manufacturers, Vabiotech, to share cutting-edge knowledge that could help prevent future global outbreaks of avian flu and rabies.
Source: University of Bristol news - Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Health, International, Research; Faculty of Life Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, School of Biochemistry, Institutes, Institutes, Bristol BioDesign Institute; Press Release Source Type: news
Publication date: 23 November 2019Source: New Scientist, Volume 244, Issue 3257Author(s): Ruby Prosser Scully
Source: New Scientist - Category: Science Source Type: research
Rabies is estimated to cause 59,000 deaths and economic losses of US$8.6 billion every year. Despite several years of rabies surveillance and awareness programmes, increased availability of post-exposure proph...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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