Oncobiome at the Forefront of a  Novel Molecular Mechanism to Understand the Microbiome and Cancer.

Oncobiome at the Forefront of a Novel Molecular Mechanism to Understand the Microbiome and Cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1168:147-156 Authors: Astudillo-de la Vega H, Alonso-Luna O, Ali-Pérez J, López-Camarillo C, Ruiz-Garcia E Abstract The microbiome comprises all the genetic material within a microbiota, that represents tenfold higher than that of our cells. The microbiota it includes a wide variety of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoans, fungi, and archaea, and this ecosystem is personalized in any body space of every individual. Balanced microbial communities can positively contribute to training the immune system and maintaining immune homeostasis. Dysbiosis is a change in the normal microbiome composition that can initiate chronic inflammation, epithelial barrier breaches, and overgrowth of harmful bacteria. The next-generation sequencing methods have revolutionized the study of the microbiome. Bioinformatic tools to manage large volumes of new information, it became possible to assess species diversity and measure dynamic fluctuations in microbial communities. The burden of infections that are associated to human cancer is increasing but is underappreciated by the cancer research community. The rich content in microbes of normal and tumoral tissue reflect could be defining diverse physiological or pathological states. Genomic research has emerged a new focus on the interplay between the human microbiome and carc...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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Abstract Recent evidence support that the c-Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1)/COPS5 has an oncogenic function in various tissues. We show that JAB1 amplification in human prostate cancer (PCa) correlates with reduced overall survival and disease-free progression. Immunohistochemical staining shows enhanced expression of JAB1 in the cytoplasmic compartment of PCa cells compared to the normal prostate epithelium, indicating the activity/function of JAB1 is altered in PCa. To test the function of JAB1 in PCa, we efficiently silenced JAB1 expression using four unique shRNAs in three PCa cell lines (LNCaP,...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
PAX8 is a prototype lineage-survival oncogene in epithelial ovarian cancer. However, neither its underlying pro-tumorigenic mechanisms nor potential therapeutic implications have been adequately elucidated. Here, we identified an ovarian lineage-specific PAX8 regulon using modified cancer outlier profile analysis, in which PAX8-FGF18 axis was responsible for promoting cell migration in an autocrine fashion. An image-based drug screen pinpointed that PAX8 expression was potently inhibited by small-molecules against histone deacetylases (HDACs). Mechanistically, HDAC blockade altered histone H3K27 acetylation occupancies and...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Cancer Biology Cell Biology Source Type: research
Shervi Lie1†, Elise Rochet1†, Erik Segerdell2, Yuefang Ma1, Liam M. Ashander1, Audra M. A. Shadforth3,4, Timothy A. Blenkinsop5, Michael Z. Michael6, Binoy Appukuttan1,6, Beth Wilmot2 and Justine R. Smith1,6* 1Eye and Vision Health, Flinders University College of Medicine and Public Health, Adelaide, SA, Australia 2Department of Biostatistics, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR, United States 3Queensland Eye Institute, Brisbane, QLD, Australia 4School of Biomedical Science, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia 5Departments of Cell, Developmental and Regener...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, β2∗ nAChR-containing receptors and lynx1 were identified using pull down studies from the mouse brain (Nissen et al., 2018), while ws-lynx1, SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 has been successfully mixed with human brain tissue to pull down multiple nAChR subtypes (Lyukmanova et al., 2016a,b; Thomsen et al., 2016). To support the in vivo interaction studies, a lynx1KO phenotype was ameliorated by crossing these mice into mutant mice null for α7 and β2 nAChR genes (Miwa et al., 2006). These in vivo studies provide an important biological context for the interactions observed within in vitro systems. ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions sections. Both authors shared in the final refinement of the manuscript. Funding Salary support for WG by National Science Foundation grant 1624615 is gratefully acknowledged. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge very useful comments from Peter Klein on an earlier version of this manuscript, and from the reviewers of this paper, whose comments have resulted in improvements. An earlier version of this...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study included 18 buffy coats collected from volunteer blood donors admitted to the blood transfusion service of IRCCS Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital after obtaining informed consent. The Ethical Committee of IRCCS Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital approved the study (825/2014) and conducted in accordance with the ethical principles stated in the Declaration of Helsinki. Cells Lines and Cell Culture NK-92 (malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma), K562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia, CD19−), Jurkat (acute T cell leukemia, CD19−) Karpas 299 (Human Non-Hodgkin's Ki-positive Large Cell ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion Several TISC-based immunotherapeutic approaches are under development in various stages of preclinical studies. As outlined in this review article, a careful and more exhaustive genetic and metabolic understanding of TISC-associated phenotypes is critical to develop novel TISC based immunotherapies. Various components within the tumor microenvironment such as tumor cells, infiltrating immune cells, and supporting stromal cells impact the TISC metabolism. This unique metabolic profile leads to upregulation of certain enzymes and proteins such as ALDH1, CEP55, IDO COA1 etc., which can be utilized for development ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion The expression of the components of the PTN-MK-RPTPβ/ζ axis in immune cells and in inflammatory diseases suggests important roles for this axis in inflammation. Pleiotrophin has been recently identified as a limiting factor of metainflammation, a chronic pathological state that contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Pleiotrophin also seems to potentiate acute neuroinflammation independently of the inflammatory stimulus while MK seems to play different -even opposite- roles in acute neuroinflammation depending on the stimulus. Which are the functions of MK and PTN in chronic neuroinfla...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion This paper summarizes the current findings regarding the anti-colitis activity of plant-derived alkaloids and shows how these alkaloids exhibit significant and beneficial effects in alleviating colonic inflammation. These natural alkaloids are not only promising agents for IBD treatment but are also components for developing new wonder drugs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms or toxicological evaluation of most plant-derived alkaloids still require much scientific research, and their actual efficacies for IBD patients have not been verified well in field research. Thus, further clinical trials to elu...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Genetic studies highlight the involvement of nicotinic receptors variants in addiction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and/or lung cancer. A future important step will be to translate these genetic findings to clinical practice. Interventions able to help smoking cessation in nicotine dependence subjects, under patent, are reported. PMID: 30605063 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Recent Patents on Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov Source Type: research
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