Bio Mimicking of Extracellular Matrix.

Bio Mimicking of Extracellular Matrix. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1174:371-399 Authors: Ghosh M, Halperin-Sternfeld M, Adler-Abramovich L Abstract Biomaterials play a critical role in regenerative strategies such as stem cell-based therapies and tissue engineering, aiming to replace, remodel, regenerate, or support damaged tissues and organs. The design of appropriate three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds is crucial for generating bio-inspired replacement tissues. These scaffolds are primarily composed of degradable or non-degradable biomaterials and can be employed as cells, growth factors, or drug carriers. Naturally derived and synthetic biomaterials have been widely used for these purposes, but the ideal biomaterial remains to be found. Researchers from diversified fields have attempted to design and fabricate novel biomaterials, aiming to find novel theranostic approaches for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Since no single biomaterial has been found to possess all the necessary characteristics for an ideal performance, over the years scientists have tried to develop composite biomaterials that complement and combine the beneficial properties of multiple materials into a superior matrix. Herein, we highlight the structural features and performance of various biomaterials and their application in regenerative medicine and for enhanced tissue engineering approaches. PMID: 31713206 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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Authors: Tamma R, Ruggieri S, Annese T, Ribatti D Abstract The traditional view of the vascular biology is changed by the discovery of vascular progenitor cells in bone marrow or peripheral blood Further complexity is due to the findings that the vessel walls harbor progenitor and stem cells, called vascular wall-resident vascular stem cells (VW-VSCs), able to differentiate to mature vascular wall cells. These immature stem/progenitor cell populations and multipotent mesenchymal lineage participate in postnatal neovascularization and vascular wall remodeling. Further studies are necessary to deepen the knowledge on...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Contributors : Zi-Bing Jin ; Mei-Ling Gao ; Fang HanSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensRetinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a hereditary retinal degenerative disease. Although an increasing number of disease genes have been identified, the exact cellular mechanisms of RP remain largely unclear. Retinal organoids (ROs) derived from the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of patients provide a potential but unvalidated platform for deciphering disease mechanisms. Here, we developed patient ROs with a PDE6B mutation.To investigate the transcriptional effects of the PDE6B mutation...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Contributors : Koichiro Nishino ; Ken Takasawa ; Kohji Okamura ; Yoshikazu Arai ; Asato Sekiya ; Hidenori Akutsu ; Akihiro UmezawaSeries Type : Methylation profiling by arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensHuman induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were established as an artificial embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to avoid immune rejection, for ethical issues in regenerative medicine, and for biological research. Comparison analyses in previous studies revealed that there is no hot spot that distinguishes iPSCs from ESCs. We herewith established a learning model using Jubatus, as a machine learning platform, with linear model for clas...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Methylation profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Contributors : Lulu Hu ; Songshu MengSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensTo gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying TRIP13-mediated oncogenic activity in GBM, we performed RNA-seq on spheres derived from U87MG-shTRIP13 and control cells .This analysis identified 1094 genes whose expression was markedly reduced by TRIP13 knockdown in U87MG-derived spheres (fold change>2, p
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Abstract The advent of multi-OMICS approaches has a significant impact on the investigation of biological processes occurring in plants. RNA-SEQ, cellular proteomics, and metabolomics have added a considerable ease in studying the dynamics of stem cell niches. New cell sorting approaches coupled with the labeling of stem cell population specific marker genes are highly instrumental in enriching distinct cellular populations for various types of analysis. One more promising field of OMICS is the mapping of cellular interactomes. The plant stem cells research is barely profited from this newly emerging field of OMIC...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract The organization of the root apical meristem (RAM) provides insights into the evolution of roots in vascular plants. The RAM of seed plants has a quiescent center (QC), in which the cells divide infrequently and function to maintain neighboring stem cells. However, the existence of a QC and the mechanisms of RAM maintenance in non-seed plants are poorly understood. We analyzed the RAM organization of lycophytes focusing on cell division activity using the EdU labeling method and showed that the RAM of Lycopodium species has a region with a very low cell division frequency, which was named the QC-like regi...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Molecular docking enables comprehensive exploration of interactions between chemical moieties and proteins. Modeling and docking approaches are useful to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structure of experimentally uncrystallized proteins and subsequently their interactions with various inhibitors and activators or peptides. Here, we describe a protocol for carrying out molecular modeling and docking of stem cell peptide CLV3p on plant innate immune receptor FLS2. PMID: 31797292 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract In higher plants, the cells that form aboveground tissues and organs are derived from the shoot apical meristem (SAM). SAM is dynamic in nature and divided into central zone (CZ), peripheral zone (PZ), and rib meristem (RM). Stem cells reside in the CZ, and their progenitors differentiate to form lateral organs in PZ and stem tissue in RM. Besides zones, the SAM is also divided into distinct clonal cell layers that show patterned cell division. Here, we describe methods to tag and isolate cell types from both cell layers and zones of SAM in high purity using cell sorter. This method enable plant biol...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) are powerful tools to create specific knockout mutants in plants. The use of an optimized TALEN backbone and the choice of promoters that are strongly active in the stem cells of the shoot apical meristem are key to a high rate of heritable targeted mutations. Recommendations for construct design and screening for mutants are given in this chapter. PMID: 31797287 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract By virtue of their sessile nature, plants may not show the fight-and-flight response, but they are not devoid of protecting themselves from disease-causing agents, attack by herbivores, and damages that are caused by other environmental factors. Plants differentially protect their life-sustaining organs such as plant apexes from the attack by microbial pathogens. There are well-established methods to inoculate/infect various plant parts such as leaves, roots, and stems with various different pathogens. The plant shoot apical meristems (SAM) are a high-value plant target that provides niche to stem cell po...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
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