Correlations of Neuropsychological and Metabolic Brain Changes in Parkinson's Disease and Other α-Synucleinopathies

Cognitive impairment is a common feature in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other α-synucleinopathies as 80% of PD patients develop dementia within 20 years. Early cognitive changes in PD patients present as a dysexecutive syndrome, broadly characterized as a disruption of the fronto-striatal dopamine network. Cognitive deficits in other domains (recognition memory, attention processes and visuospatial abilities) become apparent with the progression of PD and development of dementia. In dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) the cognitive impairment develops early or even precedes parkinsonism and it is more pronounced in visuospatial skills and memory. Cognitive impairment in the rarer α-synucleinopathies (multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure) is less well studied. Metabolic brain imaging with positron emission tomography and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a well-established diagnostic method in neurodegenerative diseases, including dementias. Changes in glucose metabolism precede those seen on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Reduction in glucose metabolism and atrophy have been suggested to represent consecutive changes of neurodegeneration and are linked to specific cognitive disorders (e.g., dysexecutive syndrome, memory impairment, visuospatial deficits etc.). Advances in the statistical analysis of FDG-PET images enabling a network analysis broadened our understanding of neurodegenerative brain processes. A specific cognitive pattern ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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What exactly is psychosis? What happens in the brain of a person with schizophrenia who is hallucinating? Schizophrenic Rachel Star Withers shares her personal hallucinations and delusions and Dr. Joseph Goldberg, who specializes in researching what goes on in the brain when someone is experiencing psychosis, joins to break down how the brain functions during psychotic episodes. Host Rachel Star Withers, a diagnosed schizophrenic, and co-host Gabe Howard delve into these intense subjects in this episode of Inside Schizophrenia.  Highlights from “Psychosis in Schizophrenia” Episode [02:13]  Rachel, do...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Brain and Behavior Disorders General Inside Schizophrenia Mental Health and Wellness Active psychosis Delusions Delusions Hallucinations Living with Schizoprenia Mental Disorder Mental Illness Psychology psychotic Psychotic Break Source Type: blogs
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: The Lancet NeurologyAuthor(s): John-Paul Taylor, Ian G McKeith, David J Burn, Brad F Boeve, Daniel Weintraub, Claire Bamford, Louise M Allan, Alan J Thomas, John T O'BrienSummaryDementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia, jointly known as Lewy body dementia, are common neurodegenerative conditions. Patients with Lewy body dementia present with a wide range of cognitive, neuropsychiatric, sleep, motor, and autonomic symptoms. Presentation varies between patients and can vary over time within an individual. Treatments can address one symptom but wors...
Source: The Lancet Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and fatigue are some of the most frequent symptoms in neurological diseases and could impact on quality of life by increasing the risk of accidents and generally affecting daily life activities. In this review, we will examine the variety of causes responsible for EDS in neurological diseases, including nocturnal sleep alterations, CNS pathological abnormalities with alterations in arousal and/or REM regulation systems, circadian rhythms disorders, drugs, and comorbid psychiatric or primary sleep disorders. Among neurological diseases, epilepsy, dementia, Parkinson disea...
Source: Sleep and Breathing - Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Tags: Sleep Breath Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
This popular science article from the AARP is representative of the sort of outsider's view of the longevity industry that is presently dominant. On the one hand, it is good that the media and advocacy organizations such as AARP are finally talking seriously about treating aging as a medical condition. On the other hand, the author looks at two of the most popular areas of development, mTOR inhibitors and senolytics, in a way that makes them seem more or less equivalent, and then further adds diet and exercise as another equivalent strategy. This will be continuing issue, I fear. People, as a rule, don't think about size o...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Authors: Ferini-Strambi L, Fasiello E, Sforza M, Maria S, Galbiati A Abstract Introduction: Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Behavior disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep parasomnia characterized by dream enacting behaviors allowed by the loss of physiological atonia during REM sleep. This disorder is recognized as a prodromal stage of neurodegenerative disease, in particular Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Therefore, a timely identification of biomarkers able to predict an early conversion into neurodegeneration is of utmost importance. Areas covered: In this review, the authors provide updated e...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research
This article reviews FDG-PET studies in Parkinson ’s disease (PD), atypical parkinsonism (AP), Huntington’s disease (HD), and dystonia.Recent FindingsThe metabolic pattern of PD, disease progression, non-motor symptoms such as fatigue, depression, apathy, impulse control disorders, and cognitive impairment, and the risk of progression to dementia have been identified with FDG-PET studies. In prodromal PD, the REM sleep behavior disorder-related covariance pattern has been described. In AP, FDG-PET studies have demonstrated to be superior to D2/D3 SPECT in differentiating PD from AP. The metabolic patterns of HD...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Berardelli I, Belvisi D, Pasquini M, Fabbrini A, Petrini F, Fabbrini G Abstract Introduction: reviewed studies that assessed the treatment of psychiatric disturbances in Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonisms. Neuropsychiatric disturbances in these conditions are frequent and have a profound impact on quality of life of patients and of their caregivers. It is therefore important to be familiar with the appropriate pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for treating these disorders. Areas covered: The authors searched for papers in English in Pubmed using the following keywords: Parkinso...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research
There are a number of things that can increase the risk of dementia: age, of course, as well as certain genetic profiles and behaviors such as smoking and drinking. Some of the same things that contribute to heart disease, such as high cholesterol levels and the build up of plaques in the blood vessels, can also boost the chances of developing dementia. And in a large study published in JAMA Internal Medicine conducted in the UK, researchers report another possible factor: a group of drugs known as anticholinergics. These include prescription medications for treating depression, pulmonary disease, and Parkinson’s, as...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Brain Dementia Drugs Source Type: news
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