Sputum culture and drug sensitivity testing outcome among X-pert MTB/Rif positive, rifampicin resistant sputa: A retrospective study – Not all rifampicin resistance is MDR

Publication date: Available online 13 November 2019Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): Lebogang Kenaope, Hannetjie Ferreira, Faheem Seedat, Kennedy Otwombe, Neil A. Martinson, Ebrahim VariavaAbstractSettingTshepong Hospital multidrug resistant (MDR) unit between April 2011 and February 2014.ObjectiveRifampicin resistant (RR) tuberculosis (TB) on X-pert MTB/Rif is assumed a surrogate for MDR TB. Following a RR result, a second specimen is taken for confirmatory culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST). We compare the initial diagnostic X-pert MTB/RIF result to the confirmatory DST in a high HIV seroprevalence setting.DesignWe retrospectively reviewed records analyzing demographics, HIV serostatus, prior TB treatments and DST results.ResultsOf 604 patients with X-pert MTB/RIF RR, 374(61.9%) had a DST and were included. The mean age was 36.9 years and 82% were HIV–infected. Following DST, MDR was confirmed in 49% and Rif mono-resistant (RMR) TB in 36%. Amongst RMR TB, 84% were HIV-infected and amongst those with CD4 
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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ConclusionOur results show strong bactericidal potential of CHP against M.tuberculosis that warrant its immediate mechanistic, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionWGS ofM. tuberculosis isolates allows the detection of drug resistance to all drugs in a single test and also provides insight into the evolution and drug-resistant TB.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsResistant MTB isolates in Algeria harbour resistance genotypes similar to other countries, but some rare patterns may result from selection and transmission processes inherent to the country.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our work demonstrates the utility of machine learning as a flexible approach to drug resistance prediction that is able to accommodate a much larger number of predictors and to summarize their predictive ability, thus assisting clinical decision making and single nucleotide polymorphism detection in an era of increasing WGS data generation.
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
ConclusionThese results may be of value in rapid molecular detection of MDR- and XDR-TB isolates in clinical samples in Hebei Province.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn recent years, we identified a low incidence of DR-TB as well as the poor outcome of DR-TB treatment. The majority of cases were primary drug-resistant and foreign-born. To further improve treatment outcome, special attention should be given to the high-risk DR-TB patients.
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsResistant MTB isolates in Algeria harbor resistance genotypes similar as in other countries but some rare patterns may result from selection and transmission processes inherent to the country.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionOverexpression of EP genes can contribute to the emergence of a MDR phenotype in M. tuberculosis. Inhibition of EPs may provide a promising strategy for improving tuberculosis treatment outcomes in patients infected with M/XDR-TB isolates.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
[Vanguard] Drug-Resistant  diseases caused by Antimicrobial Resistance, AMR, including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, MDR-TB, respiratory tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, STIs and Urinary Tract Infections, UTIs, have become a major threat to life globally.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
In this study, a BER homolog encoded by cj0595c (named nth) in C. jejuni was analyzed for endonuclease III activity and for its role in maintaining genomic stability. It was found that inactivation of nth resulted in elevated frequencies of spontaneous fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQR) and oxidative stress resistant (OXR) mutants, compared with the wild-type strain in C. jejuni. Sequencing analysis of the FQR and OXR mutants revealed that the elevated mutation rates were associated with C → T or G → A transition in gyrA (FQR mutants) or perR (for OXR mutants). In an in vitro assay, a purified recombinant C. jejuni ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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