Researchers block metastasis-promoting enzyme, halt spread of breast cancer

(University of California - San Francisco) In a breakthrough with important implications for the future of immunotherapy for breast cancer, UC San Francisco scientists have found that blocking the activity of a single enzyme can prevent a common type of breast cancer from spreading to distant organs.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Related Links:

Authors: Han RH, Dunn GP, Chheda MG, Kim AH Abstract Metastases from melanoma, lung and breast cancer are among the most common causes of intracranial malignancy. Standard of care for brain metastases include a combination of surgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery, and whole-brain radiation. However, evidence continues to accumulate regarding the efficacy of molecularly-targeted systemic treatments and immunotherapy. For non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), numerous clinical trials have demonstrated intracranial activity for inhibitors of EGFR and ALK. Patients with melanoma brain metastases may benefit from ...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
In this study, we postulated that eIF4A could be a vulnerable node in BCSCs. In order to test this, we generated a paclitaxel-resistant TNBC cell line which demonstrated an elevated level of eIF4A along with increased levels of cancer stemness markers (ALDH activity and CD44), pluripotency transcription factors (SOX2, OCT4, and NANOG) and drug transporters (ABCB1, ABCG2, and ABCC1). Furthermore, genetic ablation of eIF4A resulted in reduced expression of ALDH1A1, pluripotency transcription factors and drug transporters. This pointed out that eIF4A is likely associated with selected set of proteins that are critical to BCSC...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImmune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are an emerging therapy in breast cancer, but not all patients will have benefit with these medications. It has been proposed that certain gut microbes may play a role in protecting the host against inappropriate inflammation and modulating the immune response. Here, we review the current evidence on the association of the gut microbiome, antitumor immunity, and response to immunotherapy and discuss open questions, ongoing trials, and future directions for modulating the gut microbiome as part of breast cancer treatment.Recent FindingsSeveral groups have showed t...
Source: Current Breast Cancer Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, we generated two types of EGFR-specific CAR-modified T cells using lentiviral vectors with DNA sequences encoding the scFv regions of two anti-EGFR antibodies. The cytotoxic and antitumor effects of these CAR-modified T cells were examined in cytokine release and cytotoxicity assays in vitro and in tumor growth assays in TNBC cell line- and patient-derived xenograft mouse models. Both types of EGFR-specific CAR-T cells were activated by high-EGFR-expressing TNBC cells and specifically triggered TNBC cell lysis in vitro. Additionally, the CAR-T cells inhibited growth of cell-line- and patient-derived xenograf...
Source: Aging - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research
In this study, we show that a portion of PD-L1 exogenously expressed in several triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, as well as endogenous PD-L1, is proteolytically cleaved by cell surface metalloproteases. The cleavage generates an  ~ 37-kDa N-terminal PD-L1 fragment that is released to the media and a C-terminal PD-L1 fragment that remains associated with cells but is efficiently eliminated by lysosomal degradation. We identify ADAM10 and ADAM17, two closely related members of the ADAM family of cell surface metalloprotea ses, as enzymes mediating PD-L1 cleavage. Notably, treatment of cells with ionomy...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Cancer vaccines represent an active immunotherapy designed to stimulate the patient ’s immune system to recognize and kill tumor cells. Optimally, cancer vaccines stimulate type 1 CD4+ and CD8+T cell responses against tumor-associated antigens (Ags) (TAAs) and/or tumor specific Ags (TSAs) [1,2]. The main classes of TAAs and TSAs are summarized in Table 1. Known tumor Ags relevant to BC are shown in Table 2.
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Tumour Review Source Type: research
Immunotherapy, which is seen as a major tool for cancer treatment, requires, in some cases, the presence of several agents to maximize its effects. Adjuvants can enhance the effect of other agents. However, despite their long-time use, only a few adjuvants are licensed today, and their use in cancer treatment is rare. Azoximer bromide, marketed under the trade name Polyoxidonium® (PO), is a copolymer of N-oxidized 1,4-ethylenepiperazine and (N-carboxyethyl)-1,4-ethylene piperazinium bromide. It has been described as an immune adjuvant and immunomodulator that is clinically used with excellent tolerance. PO is used in t...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review will discuss recent important trials for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer, emphasize ongoing areas of development, and highlight areas of unmet need.Recent FindingsAdvances for early-stage treatment have been driven by key clinical trials with pertuzumab, neratinib, and TDM-1. In the adjuvant setting, dual HER2 targeting with trastuzumab and pertuzumab has demonstrated modest improvement in disease-free survival. Neratinib also showed modest benefit in the extended adjuvant setting after prior trastuzumab. Finally, for patients who did not achieve pathologic complete respons...
Source: Current Breast Cancer Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Godoy-Calderón MJ, González-Marcano E, Carballo J, Convit AF Abstract Breast cancer therapies using checkpoints alone have not been highly effective. Based on previous experiences using the ConvitVax, an autologous tumor cells/bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)/formalin-based vaccine, in breast cancer and the potential success of combined therapies, we sought to ascertain whether the ConvitVax combined with anti-PD-1 enhances the antitumor effect in a 4T1 breast cancer model. Animals received four weekly injections of either PBS (G1), ConvitVax (200 μg cell homogenate, 0.0625 mg BCG, 0....
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Abstract The introduction of new therapeutic agents has revolutionized the treatment of metastatic melanoma. The approval of adjuvant anti-PD-1 monotherapy with nivolumab or pembrolizumab and dabrafenib plus trametinib has recently set a new landmark in the treatment of stage III melanoma. Now, clinical trials have shown that immune checkpoint blockade can be performed in a neoadjuvant setting, an approach established as a standard therapeutic approach for other tumour entities such as breast cancer. Recent studies suggest that a pathologic response achieved by neoadjuvant immunotherapy is associated with a long-t...
Source: The British Journal of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Br J Dermatol Source Type: research
More News: Breast Cancer | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Immunotherapy