Researchers block metastasis-promoting enzyme, halt spread of breast cancer

(University of California - San Francisco) In a breakthrough with important implications for the future of immunotherapy for breast cancer, UC San Francisco scientists have found that blocking the activity of a single enzyme can prevent a common type of breast cancer from spreading to distant organs.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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This article summarizes the rationale for, and development of CDK inhibitors in melanoma, with their evolution from pan-CDK inhibitors to highly specific agents, throughout clinical trials and finally their potential future use. EXPERT OPINION: Whilst CDK inhibitors have been practice changing in breast cancer management, their efficacy is yet to be proven in melanoma. Combination with BRAF/MEK inhibitors has been hindered by dose-limiting toxicities, but their role may yet to be found within the spectrum of biomarker-derived personalized melanoma management. The effect that CDK inhibitors can have as an adjunct to imm...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
Immune response and immunotherapy play important roles in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, it is difficult to judge whether cancer is “immune-inactivated” or “immune-activated” by the carcinoma itself. The immune reaction of the microenvironment or the host to the tumor might be more informative. We assumed that clinically enlarged but pathologically negative regional lymph nodes served as an indicator for early immune response to tumors. First, we identified women with pN0 breast cancer disease from the current Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, and we compared the ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Background: Despite the assumption of breast cancer (BC) as a cold, non-immunogenic tumor, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy is favorable for a subgroup of patients. Immunohistochemical assessment of the programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is the only approved companion diagnostic for anti-PD-L1 therapy in metastatic triple-negative BC; however, challenges regarding the standardization of PD-L1 scoring in tumor tissue still remain. Consequently, to select patients most likely to respond to ICI, blood-based biomarkers are urgently needed.Summary and Key Messages: Liquid biopsy, comprising circulating immune cells...
Source: Breast Care - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
The EO771 cell line presents a molecular pattern ER α‐, ERβ +, PR+ and ErbB2+ and could be considered as a luminal B subtype. The EO771 tumour‐bearing mouse model presents the great interest of developing an immunocompetent mammary neoplastic model using an orthotopic injection. AbstractAmong mouse mammary tumor models, syngeneic cell lines present an advantage for the study of immune response. However, few of these models are well characterized. The tumor line EO771 is derived from spontaneous breast cancer of C57BL/6 mice. These cells are widely used but are referenced under different names: EO771, EO 771,...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
A new review looks at the current role of immunotherapy in the neoadjuvant/adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer and explores the potential future prospects of these therapies.Chinese Clinical Oncology
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Hematology-Oncology Journal Article Source Type: news
AbstractTriple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by a lack of expression of both estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptors as well as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and is associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, the systemic treatment options are limited. However, the TNBC is more likely than other breast cancer subtypes to benefit from immune checkpoint blockade therapy due to its higher immunogenicity, higher enrichment by tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and higher levels of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. Thus far, atezolizumab was approved in combination with na...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and the HIF-dependent cancer hallmarks angiogenesis and metabolic rewiring are well-established drivers of breast cancer aggressiveness, therapy resistance, and poor prognosis. Targeting of HIF and its downstream targets in angiogenesis and metabolism has been unsuccessful so far in the breast cancer clinical setting, with major unresolved challenges residing in target selection, development of robust biomarkers for response prediction, and understanding and harnessing of escape mechanisms. This Review discusses the pathophysiological role of HIFs, angiogenesis, and metabolism in breast can...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
The need for an effective therapy for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) prompted us to develop a novel combinatorial immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells targeting the tumor-antigen B7-H3 (B7-H3 CAR T-cells) as the effector mechanism. B7-H3 was selected because it is highly expressed on differentiated and cancer-initiating TNBC cells, up-regulated on tumor-associated fibroblasts and stroma, and has limited distribution in normal tissues. B7-H3 CAR T-cells were combined with radiation to enhance their anti-tumor activity, since radiation modulates the expression of molecules relevant to CAR T-cell anti-tumor activity.
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Breast Source Type: research
Prostaglandins, generated by action of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes, are important mediators of inflammation. The COX-prostaglandin pathway also regulates tumorigenesis, allowing cancer cells to evade apoptosis and invade tissues. Nonetheless, the role of the COX-prostaglandin pathway in breast cancer progression and response to immunotherapy remains elusive. We hypothesized that dysregulation of prostaglandin-mediated signaling in the tumor microenvironment might suppress tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and that inhibiting prostaglandin expression might synergize with immunotherapeutic approaches.
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Breast Source Type: research
Source: Cancer Management and Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Management and Research Source Type: research
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