The Role of Proopiomelanocortin and α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone in the Metabolic Syndrome in Psychiatric Disorders: A Narrative Mini-Review

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises abdominal obesity, preclinical or full diabetes type 2, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia and affects a significant proportion of the general population with a remarkably higher prevalence in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. However, studies exploring the pathogenetic link between MetS and psychiatric diseases are rare. Here, we aim to narrow this gap in knowledge by providing a narrative review on this topic that focuses on two psychiatric diseases, namely on schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) since we assume them to be associated with two different main causalities of MetS: in schizophrenia, MetS evidently develops or aggravates in response to antipsychotic drug treatment while it assumingly develops in response to stress-induced endocrine and/or epigenetic alterations in PTSD. First, we compared the prevalences of MetS and associated pathologies (which we took from the latest meta-analyses) among different psychiatric disorders and were surprised that the prevalences of arterial hypertension and hyperglycemia in PTSD almost doubles those of the other psychiatric disorders. Next, we performed a literature search on the neurobiology of MetS and found numerous articles describing a role for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in MetS. Thus, we concentrated further analysis on POMC and one of its downstream effector hormones, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). We found some evidence for a...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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ConclusionBreast pilonidal sinus is an extremely rare variant of the condition. It should be suspected on clinical examination. Surgical excision is the definitive treatment strategy.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionGiven the increasing number of such surgeries performed the recognition of acute and chronic complications, and their optimal management is of great importance. Although performing a Roux-en-Y fistulojejunostomy was recommended in the literature, conservative and endoscopic treatment should be considered before.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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Source: Cirugia Espanola - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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Source: Jornal Vascular Brasileiro - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Silicone oil endotamponade in PPV was associated with an increased risk of IOP at 24-month follow-up. PMID: 31811816 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe association between the WIC food package change and obesity varied by type of infant food package received, with the strongest associations observed for those who were mostly breastfed.
Source: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Functional Foods - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
But the new guidance may not have a big impact on price, despite the agency's pronouncements.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Diabetes & Endocrinology News Source Type: news
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Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThese results reveal a specific role of BDNF promoter I in thermogenesis regulation and define a small subset of neurons in LH that contribute to such regulation.
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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