Whole Genome Analysis of Selected Human Group A Rotavirus Strains Revealed Evolution of DS-1-Like Single- and Double-Gene Reassortant Rotavirus Strains in Pakistan During 2015 –2016

In this study we have characterized the whole genomes of five RVA strains (PAK56, PAK419, PAK585, PAK622, and PAK663) using the Illumina HiSeq platform. The strains PAK56 and PAK622 exhibited a typical Wa-like genotype constellation (G9-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1 and G3-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1, respectively), whereas PAK419, PAK585, and PAK663 exhibited distinct DS-1-like genotype constellations (G3P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T1-E2-H2, G1P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2, and G3P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2, respectively). Despite their DS-1-like genotype constellation, strain PAK585 possessed the typical Wa-like G1P[8] genotypes, whereas both PAK419 and PAK663 possessed the G3 genotype. In addition, PAK419 also possessed the Wa-like NSP3 genotype T1, suggesting that multiple reassortments have occurred. On Phylogenetic analysis, all of the gene segments of the five strains examined in this study were genetically related to globally circulating human G1, G2, G3, G6, G8, G9, and G12 strains. Interestingly, the NSP2 gene of strain PAK419 showed closest relationship with Indian bovine strain (India/HR/B91), suggesting the occurrence of reassortment between human and bovine RVA strains. Furthermore, strains PAK419, PAK585, and PAK663 were closely related to one another in most of their gene segments, indicating that these strains might have been derived from a common ancestor. To our knowledge this is the first whole genome-based molecular characterization of human rotavi...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
This study examined the RV vaccine effectiveness against risk of hospitalization based on a retrospective cohort study and the impact of public expense for the RV vaccine on this regional RV gastroenteritis epidemic. The vaccination coverage was significantly higher in children in Shari and Koshimizu than in Abashiri (87.8% vs. 42.7%, respectively, p
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research
Human group A rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Immunization programs have reduced the disease burden in many countries. Vaccination coverage in the Au...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Conclusions: The present study found RVA positivity in 30.62% of children with gastroenteritis, with the highest burden among 24–36 months old. The predominant genotypes were G1, G3, and P[8]. Further large-scale/multicentric studies should be conducted to document the diversity of circulating RVA genotypes in this region for giving inputs for vaccination strategy.
Source: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Kotsopoulos N, Haitsma G, Connolly MP, Standaert B Abstract Background: The economics of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants
Source: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research - Category: Health Management Tags: Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res Source Type: research
Publication date: December 2019Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 7, Issue 12Author(s): Frédéric Debellut, Andrew Clark, Clint Pecenka, Jacqueline Tate, Ranju Baral, Colin Sanderson, Umesh Parashar, Laura Kallen, Deborah AtherlySummaryBackgroundPrevious studies have found rotavirus vaccination to be highly cost-effective in low-income countries. However, updated evidence is now available for several inputs (ie, rotavirus disease mortality rates, rotavirus age distributions, vaccine timeliness, and vaccine efficacy by duration of follow-up), new rotavirus vaccines have entered the market, vaccine prices ...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
In this study, a shuttle vector was constructed for the spore surface display of the spike protein VP8* from porcine rotavirus (the genotype was G5P[7]). A successful display of the CotB-VP8* fusion protein on the spore surface was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. The capacity for immune response generated after immunization with the recombinant strain was evaluated in a mouse model. The intestinal fecal IgA and serum IgG were detected by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay (ELISA). Importantly, recombinant strain spores could elicit strong specific mucosal and humoral immune re...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2019Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 7, Issue 11Author(s): Andrew Clark, Jacqueline Tate, Umesh Parashar, Mark Jit, Mateusz Hasso-Agopsowicz, Nicholas Henschke, Benjamin Lopman, Kevin Van Zandvoort, Clint Pecenka, Paul Fine, Colin SandersonSummaryBackgroundInfant rotavirus vaccines have led to substantial reductions in hospital admissions and deaths due to gastroenteritis, but some studies have reported an elevated risk of intussusception, a rare bowel disorder. This analysis aimed to provide evidence on the potential mortality reduction benefits and intussusception risks of current rotav...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: To support vaccine decision-making we estimated from the societal perspective the potential health impact and costs averted through immunization with three vaccines - Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and rotavirus vaccine (RVV). METHODS: Based on variability in disease burden, strength of health system and economic status, we selected four states in India: Bihar, New Delhi, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. We used secondary data sources to estimate the number of under-5 deaths averted from Hib, pneumococcus and rotavirus in each state and back-calculate...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Abstract Rotavirus A (RVA) has been detected from patients with gastroenteritis even after vaccine introduction in Japan. To investigate the circulating RVA strains, the RVA-positive stool specimens obtained in Tokyo in 2017 and 2018 were analyzed by next-generation sequencing. A total of 50 and 21 RVA samples were obtained in 2017 and 2018, respectively. In 2017, G2P[4] (40.0%) was the most prevalent strain, followed by G3P[8] (DS-1-like) (28.0%), G8P[8] (10.0%), G3P[8] (Wa-like) (8.0%), G9P[8]-E1 (8.0%), and mixed infection (6.0%). In 2018, G3P[8] (DS-1-like) (28.6%) and G9P[8]-E2 (28.6%) were the prevalent stra...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research
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