Development of Methodology for Analyzing RNA Structure and Its Application in Molecular Biology and Virology

AbstractThe review covers three independent blocks of research. The first one is discovery, isolation, and investigation of snake venom RNases and their use in studying RNA macrostructure. It has been established that snake venom RNases are not specific to the primary RNA structure but rather to the RNA helical conformation (double, single, or hybrid helix). Snake venom RNases hydrolyze RNA to short oligomers with the 5 ′-terminal phosphate. Analysis of the kinetics and products of tRNA hydrolysis exemplifies the use of snake venom RNases for deciphering RNA macrostructure. The second block is devoted to the principle formulated by the author for analyzing the primary structure of nucleic acids and describes the method of direct RNA sequencing that has been developed with author’s participation. The third block describes the results of genotyping and etiologic control of epidemic influenza A viruses circulating in the Soviet Union in 1968 to 1992. The method for comparative analysis of genome sequences of viral isolates has made it possible to detect and characterize epidemic influenza virus strains that had emerged in the circulation as a result of reactivation of inactivated vaccines.
Source: Biochemistry (Moscow) - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

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Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: This Week in Virology african swine fever virus capsid China coronavirus cryo-electron micrography giant virus Huanan Fish Market influenza influenza excess mortality influenza like illness influenza vaccine pig three dimensional Source Type: blogs
Almost as many people are falling ill as did two years ago, in what was a particularly severe flu season. But this season ’s virus is unusual, and it’s too early to tell how dangerous.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Influenza Fever Deaths (Fatalities) Epidemics Vaccination and Immunization Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kinsa Inc Australia United States Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2019Source: Journal of Electroanalytical ChemistryAuthor(s): Aneta Anna Dunajová, Miroslav Gál, Kornélia Tomčíková, Romana Sokolová, Viliam Kolivoška, Eva Vanečková, Filip Kielar, František Kostolanský, Eva Varečková, Monika NaumowiczAbstractAcute respiratory infections epidemics are yearly caused by influenza A viruses due to their high variability. The course of disease can be sometimes very severe, especially in high risk groups of patients (suffering by chronical disease, immunosupression, or p...
Source: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: IIV immunization in children with pre-existing medical conditions does not reduce all cause RI episodes encountered in primary care during the influenza season. PMID: 31859200 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Authors: Hallmann-Szelińska E, Łuniewska K, Szymański K, Kowalczyk D, Sałamatin R, Masny A, Brydak LB Abstract The World Health Organization estimates that influenza virus infects 3-5 million people worldwide every year, of whom 290,000 to 650,000 die. In the 2016/2017 epidemic season in Poland, the incidence of influenza was 1,692 per 100,000 population. The influenza A virus, subtype A/H3N2/, was the predominant one in that season. However, in the most recent 2017/2018 epidemic season, the incidence exceeded 1,782 per 100,000 already by August of 2018. In this season, influenza B virus predominated, while the...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Influenza A virus (IAV) and influenza B virus (IBV) cause substantial morbidity and mortality during seasonal epidemics. On basis of variation in the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin, two antigenically distinct lineages of IBV are distinguished: B/Victoria/2/87-like (B/Vic) and B/Yamagata/16/88-like (B/Yam). To prevent IAV and IBV infections, both trivalent (containing IBV of one lineage) and quadrivalent (containing IBV of both lineages) influenza vaccines are used. In addition to virus-neutralizing antibodies, inactivated influenza vaccines induce antibodies that mediate antibody-dependent cellular cy...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
Conclusions: Influenza A and B were equally prevalent. Patients had globally similar characteristics. Patients with influenza A virus infection were more often hospital-admitted and oseltamivir treated; however in-hospital and medium-term mortality rates were not significantly different. Influenza B virus infections can be just as severe as influenza A virus infections.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: A vaccination programme which targets children under 15 is predicted to have much larger epidemiological impact than those targeting elderly. PMID: 31735503 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Current challenges: from the path of "original antigenic sin" towards the development of universal flu vaccines. Int Rev Immunol. 2019 Nov 09;:1-16 Authors: Biswas A, Chakrabarti AK, Dutta S Abstract Annual flu led by influenza viruses is contemplated to be one of the foremost global health challenges due to its rapid spread leading to the life-threatening epidemic or pandemic. An enormous number of people die due to flu and its associated intricacies every year. Annual vaccination is considered to be the gold standard strategy to protect the individual from acquiring infection and further de...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research
In conclusion, NPs-based vaccines can serve as novel candidate vaccines against several porcine viral infections with the potential to enhance the broader protective efficacy under field conditions. This review highlights the recent developments in NPs-based vaccines against porcine viral pathogens and how the NPs-based vaccine delivery system induces innate and adaptive immune responses resulting in varied level of protective efficacy.
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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