A longitudinal study of the effect of Theileria orientalis Ikeda type infection on three New Zealand dairy farms naturally infected at pasture

Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Veterinary ParasitologyAuthor(s): KE Lawrence, K. Gedye, WE PomroyAbstractThe aims of this study were to monitor the change in Theileria orientalis Ikeda type infection intensity, haematocrit, milk production and reproduction on three New Zealand spring calving dairy herds, over the 2014 to 2015 milking season.Three spring calving dairy farms, A, B and C, from high risk (endemically stable), low risk (endemically unstable), and zero risk (disease-free) tick areas respectively were followed through the 2014 to 2015 milking season. On Farms, A and B, 100 cows were randomly selected at the first visit, and the same cows blood sampled every month thereafter, whilst on Farm C, the whole herd was blood sampled bimonthly (140 cows). Blood samples were tested for haematocrit, by centrifugation, and Ikeda infection intensity, using qPCR. Animals that were Ikeda type PCR positive at the first sampling were described as prevalence cases and cows that were negative at the first sampling and became PCR positive during the sampling period were described as incidence cases. Production and reproduction data were accessed through LIC MINDA® and milk production data was standardised to energy corrected milk (ECM). In addition, the effect of buparvaquone (BPQ) treatment on milk production was estimated on Farm B.The prevalence of infection at the first sampling was 100% on Farm A, 57% on Farm B and 26% on Farm C. The incidence risk ...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: In areas of sub-Saharan Africa, giving antimalarial drugs known to be effective against the malaria parasite at the time to infants as IPT probably reduces the risk of clinical malaria, anaemia, and hospital admission. Evidence from SP studies over a 19-year period shows declining efficacy, which may be due to increasing drug resistance. Combinations with ACTs appear promising as suitable alternatives for IPTi. 2 December 2019 Up to date All studies incorporated from most recent search All eligible published studies found in the last search (3 Dec, 2018) were included. PMID: 31792925 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis or anaplasmosis is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to certain geographic areas of the United States. Anaplasmosis is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an intracellular bacterium that is transmitted to humans by deer ticks. The clinical presentation can vary from a subclinical infection to fulminant disease resulting in multiorgan failure and death. Patients commonly present with fever, malaise, myalgia, headache, nausea, vomiting, arthralgia, and cough. Central nervous system involvement has also been reported. Here, we present 2 cases that presented with significant diagnostic challen...
Source: Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research
In conclusion, while travelling to endemic countries, people should be informed about the importance of malaria prophylaxis and prophylaxis should be commenced immediately and continued appropriately. Additionally, malaria should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of high fever for the patients who admitted to the hospital with a travelling history to these countries. PMID: 31709945 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
We present the case of a 30-year-old Bissau-Guinean man with HIV-2 infection known for 16 years, irregularly treated, admitted with two weeks of fever, diarrhoea and cutaneous lesions. Examination revealed multiple subcutaneous nodes, Molluscum contagiosum-like lesions, generalized lymphadenopathy and painful palpation of the left iliac fossa. Laboratory tests showed severe nonhaemolytic anaemia and CD4+ count of 9/mm3, with normal creatinine and hepatic enzymes. Chest roentgenogram was unremarkable and a research for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by GeneXpert® was negative. Nonetheless, given the lack of further diagnost...
Source: Journal of Medical Mycology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Abstract Human hookworm, a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection caused by either Necator americanus or Anclystoma duodenale, is a major cause of morbidity globally and predominantly affects the world's poorest populations. Transmitted primarily by larval invasion of exposed skin, the adults inhabit the host small intestine, where they consume host blood. The resultant chronic iron deficiency anemia can lead to stunted growth and cognitive deficits in children, reduced work capacity in adults, and a variety of pregnancy complications. Historically, successful STH elimination has only been achieved in regions w...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
This study was carried out with samples belonging to 140 horses residing in Spain and showing common clinical signs of EP. A blood smear microscopic examination and a comparison between the different results obtained by competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA), real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and hematological and biochemical (direct and total bilirubin) screening were conducted. EP positivity rates by cELISA and PCR were 50.7% and 42.9%, respectively, whereas only 9% of the horses were positive in the microscopic analysis. A significantly higher number of B. caballi-positive horses were detected by...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Conclusions: Severe malaria is a highly frequent event in pregnant women, without differences by Plasmodium species. It shows early recognizable dangers signs. Hospital under-reporting was identified in 88% of severe cases as well as a lack of laboratory tests for a more comprehensive diagnosis. A protocol for the clinical diagnosis of pregnant women with malaria is required. PMID: 31529822 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Biomedica : Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Biomedica Source Type: research
Abstract Over the past 20 years, RNAS+ has been generating research results from highly collaborative projects meant to promote and advance understanding in various aspects of schistosomiasis. Epidemiological studies in endemic countries like the Philippines, the People's Republic of China (PR China), the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and Cambodia clarified the role of reservoir hosts in transmission and the use of spatio-temporal methods such as remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) in surveillance of schistosomiasis. Morbidity studies proposed factors that might influence develop...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
(Abstracted from Lancet 2019;393:1428–1439.) In Africa, malaria in pregnancy presents a risk to 50 million women each year due to Plasmodium falciparum infection. Although women in endemic areas are typically asymptomatic when infected with malaria parasites, the infection is associated with maternal anemia and adverse birth outcomes including miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant mortality.
Source: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey - Category: OBGYN Tags: OBSTETRICS: MEDICAL COMPLICATIONS OF PREGNANCY Source Type: research
Conclusions and Relevance Malaria in pregnancy causes significant perinatal complications. Obstetric providers should be aware of the impact and how to prevent and treat malaria infection during pregnancy. Malaria infection should be suspected in women with concerning symptoms and recent travel to endemic areas. Providers should know the management of uncomplicated and severe malarial infection in pregnancy. Target Audience Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians. Learning Objectives After completing this activity, the learner should be better able to assess the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with...
Source: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey - Category: OBGYN Tags: CME ARTICLES Source Type: research
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