Macroscopic instructions vs microscopic operations in quantum circuits
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Physics Letters AAuthor(s): A. Veitia, M.P. da Silva, R. Blume-Kohout, S.J. van EnkAbstractIn many experiments on microscopic quantum systems, it is implicitly assumed that when a macroscopic procedure or “instruction” is repeated many times – perhaps in different contexts – each application results in the same microscopic quantum operation. But in practice, the microscopic effect of a single macroscopic instruction can easily depend on its context. If undetected, this can lead to unexpected behavior and unreliable results. Here, we design and analyze several tests to detect context-dependence. They are based on invariants of matrix products, and while they can be as data intensive as quantum process tomography, they do not require tomographic reconstruction, and are insensitive to imperfect knowledge about the experiments. We also construct a measure of how unitary (reversible) an operation is, and show how to estimate the volume of physical states accessible by a quantum operation.
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
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