Exacerbating disparities?: Cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination

Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Michelle I. Silver, Sarah KobrinAbstractThe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a powerful tool in cancer prevention. In combination with cervical cancer screening programs, this vaccine has the potential to nearly eliminate death from cervical cancer. However, this remarkable public health success can only be realized if vaccines reach those most at risk—unscreened women. Vaccinating only those already well-screened would have little impact on cervical cancer mortality, exacerbate disparities, and be a striking public health failure. We use data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System optional Adult HPV Vaccination module between 2013 and 2016 to assess the association between HPV vaccine status and cervical cancer screening behavior. Only 27% of eligible women had received any HPV vaccination. Uninsured women were less likely to be vaccinated (aOR: 0.48, 95% CI:0.30–0.76) and less likely to be screened (aOR: 0.41, 95% CI:0.28–0.60) than insured women. Vaccinated women were more than twice as likely to be up to date on screening than unvaccinated women (aOR: 2.14, 95% CI:1.46–3.12). Younger women were 49% less likely to be up to date on screening (aOR: 0.51, 95% CI:0.37–0.71), but over 4 times more likely to be vaccinated (aOR: 4.44, 95% CI:3.20–6.17) than older women. Unvaccinated, unscreened women are at continued risk for cervical canc...
Source: Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 4 December 2019Source: The Lancet Global HealthAuthor(s): Marc Arbyn, Elisabete Weiderpass, Laia Bruni, Silvia de Sanjosé, Mona Saraiya, Jacques Ferlay, Freddie BraySummaryBackgroundThe knowledge that persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer has resulted in the development of prophylactic vaccines to prevent HPV infection and HPV assays that detect nucleic acids of the virus. WHO has launched a Global Initiative to scale up preventive, screening, and treatment interventions to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem during th...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study highlighted the status of HPV vaccination and the prevalence of HPV-16/18 genotypes among HPV-infected women with abnormal cervical cytology according to HPV vaccination. It provides preliminary information regarding the status of HPV vaccination among Korean adult women. PMID: 31788994 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Gynecol Oncol Source Type: research
AbstractHuman papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical carcinoma, which and is the third most common cancer, accounting for 275,000 deaths annually worldwide. Adjuvants have a key role in promotion of vaccine efficacy; therefore, using prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines combined with adjuvant could be of great benefit in prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. There are different types of adjuvants, including MF59TM adjuvants, RNA-based, JY (interleukin2/chitosan), cholera toxin (CT), heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), Freund ’s adjuvant, alum, SA-4-1BBL, λ-carrageenan (λ-CGN), heat shock proteins (HSPs)...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Authors: Giannella L, Delli Carpini G, Di Giuseppe J, Prandi S, Tsiroglou D, Ciavattini A Abstract Objective: The prevalence of some human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes has been shown to change with age. So, also the distribution of HPV genotypes included in the nonavalent vaccine may not be the same at all ages, and this could mean that vaccine protection against cervical cancer may be affected by age. The present study aimed to evaluate whether there are age-related changes in the fraction of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) attributable to HPV genotypes included in the nonavalent vaccine. ...
Source: Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The immunogenicity of two-dose and three-dose HPV vaccine schedules, measured using antibody responses in young females, is comparable. The quadrivalent vaccine probably reduces external genital lesions and anogenital warts in males compared with control. The nonavalent and quadrivalent vaccines offer similar protection against a combined outcome of cervical, vaginal, and vulval precancer lesions or cancer. In people living with HIV, both the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines result in high antibody responses. For all comparisons of alternative HPV vaccine schedules, the certainty of the body of evidence ...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: HPV testing of residual chlamydia specimens provides a simple, feasible method for monitoring circulating genotypes. Applied on a larger scale this method can be utilised to obtain a timely assessment of nonavalent vaccine impact among young women not yet eligible for cervical screening. PMID: 31767467 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
While the HPV vaccines have been approved by the US FDA since 2006, in recent years an increasing number of women are living with cervical cancer globally. Among them, Chinese women have a higher cervical canc...
Source: BMC Public Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Study protocol Source Type: research
New evidence published in the Cochrane Library today provides further information on the benefits and harms of different human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and vaccine schedules in young women and men.HPV is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract in both women and men globally (WHO 2017). Most people who have sexual contact will be exposed to HPV at some point in their life. In most people, their own immune system will clear the HPV infection.HPV infection can sometimes persist if the immune system does not clear the virus. Persistent infection with some ‘high-risk’ strains of HPV can lead t...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - Category: Information Technology Authors: Source Type: news
Conclusion: Anyplex HR-HPV assay is arguably the useful assay for better patient management and can be useful for HR-HPV screening by its unique individual genotype identification of all HR-HPV. Finding of HPV 16, 39, 18, 33 and coinfection of 16,18 and 16, 18, 33 in CIN and CC would help vaccine manufacturer to design specific future HPV polyvalent vaccine preparation to curb down the CC-associated mortality.
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
Gynecologic malignancies are among the most prevalent cancers affecting women worldwide, but they are heterogeneous diseases with varying risk factors, management paradigms, and outcomes. Gynecologic cancers mediated by human papillomavirus (HPV) are preventable and curable with early detection and treatment. Dramatic reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality have been achieved through cancer screening and HPV vaccination. Radiotherapy plays a central role in the management of gynecologic malignancies. For some cancers, radiotherapy alone can be curative. More often, radiotherapy is used in conjunction with sur...
Source: Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
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