Novel Multidrug-Resistant Enterococcal Mobile Linear Plasmid pELF1 Encoding vanA and vanM Gene Clusters From a Japanese Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Isolate

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are troublesome pathogens in clinical settings because of few treatment options. A VanA/VanM-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate was identified in Japan. This strain, named AA708, harbored five plasmids, one of which migrated during agarose gel electrophoresis without S1 nuclease treatment, which is indicative of a linear topology. We named this plasmid pELF1. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of the AA708 strain revealed that the complete sequence of pELF1 was 143,316 bp long and harbored both the vanA and vanM gene clusters. Furthermore, mfold analysis and WGS data show that the left end of pELF1 presumably forms a hairpin structure, unlike its right end. The pELF1 plasmid was not digested by lambda exonuclease, indicating that terminal proteins were bound to the 5′ end of the plasmid, similar to the Streptomyces linear plasmids. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results were also consistent with the exonuclease assay results. In retardation assays, DNAs containing the right end of proteinase K-untreated pELF1 did not appear to move as well as the proteinase K-treated pELF1, suggesting that terminal proteins might be attached to the right end of pELF1. Palindromic sequences formed hairpin structures at the right terminal sequence of pELF1; however, sequence similarity with the well-known linear plasmids of Streptomyces spp. was not high. pELF1 was unique as it possessed two diffe...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: At present, the prevalence of linezolid resistance has become increasingly serious. The resistance gene optrA has been reported in Enterococcus, Staphylococcus squirrel and Streptococcus, which indicates that this gene has a strong ability to spread across bacteria, so the prevalence and spread of optrA gene should be monitored carefully. PMID: 33015768 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
In conclusion, despite of low frequency of resistance to the most antibiotics and MDRs in our region, we found one ST480 isolate with resistance to eight antibiotics that also exists in other parts of the world. PMID: 32986605 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research
Conclusions: Gram-negative bacteria were found to be dominant pathogens in healthcare-associated infections. The most frequently cultured pathogens were multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae ESBL(+), and P. aeruginosa. The study showed an increase in the incidence of “alert pathogens” and MDR bacilli, as well as the tendency of a growing resistance to antibiotics during the observed period. Microbiological analysis of HAIs and the consumption of antibiotics is the necessary element of the proper antibiotic policy in hospitals.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusions The results of this study suggest the tested antimicrobial coating is effective against a broad range of drug-resistant pathogens. Due to its ability to reduce and inhibit bacterial growth along the prosthetic liner surface, the coating shows promise as an effective tool toward mitigating infection and malodor found at the residual limb-liner interface among persons with amputation.
Source: JPO Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: CHG bathing is a highly effective approach to prevent VRE-HAIs at ICUs, in the context of active VRE surveillance with contact isolation. PMID: 32921535 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: J Formos Med Assoc - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: J Formos Med Assoc Source Type: research
ConclusionsVancomycin-resistant E. faecium bacteraemias remain infrequent in Switzerland. However, an important increase was observed between 2013 and 2018, highlighting the need for implementing active surveillance and targeted prevention strategies in the country. PMID: 32885778 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
This study aimed to establish the epidemiology and clonal composition of 134 clinical E. faecalis isolates and to link molecular typing data with antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinants. All isolates were identified by conventional methods and confirmed by PCR (16srRNA and ddl gene of E. faecalis) in 5 years. Disk diffusion test performed on all strains. We screened all E. faecalis for aac(6')-aph(2″), vanA, and vanB resistance genes, and aggregation substance-asa1, cytolysin-cylA, collagen-binding protein-ace, enterococcal surface protein-esp, gelatinase-gelE, and hyaluronidase-hyl virulence genes by P...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Conclusion: VanA and vanB are the prevalent genotypes responsible for vancomycin resistance. The high prevalence of MDR enterococcal strains producing biofilm and virulence determinants raises concern. asa1, hyl, esp, gelE, cyl and other genes are known to express these factors and contribute to biofilm formation. Most uropathogenic enterococci expressed biofilm at moderate level and can be detected effectively by calcofluor-white staining. No correlation was noted between vancomycin resistance and biofilm production.
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
Dworniczek New antimicrobial agents are needed to address infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Here, we are reporting novel O-alkyl derivatives of naringenin and their oximes, including novel compounds with a naringenin core and O-hexyl chains, showing activity against clinical strains of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-lactam-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), which provide a quantitative measure of antimicrobial activity, ...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, particularly the ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecalis/faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter spp.), have become a public health threat worldwide. Development of new antimicrobial classes and the use of drugs in combination are potential strategies to treat MDR ESKAPE pathogen infections and promote optimal antimicrobial stewardship. Here, the in vitro antimicrobial activity of robenidine analog NCL195 alone or in combination with different concentrations of three outer membrane permeabiliz...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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