Novel Multidrug-Resistant Enterococcal Mobile Linear Plasmid pELF1 Encoding vanA and vanM Gene Clusters From a Japanese Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Isolate

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are troublesome pathogens in clinical settings because of few treatment options. A VanA/VanM-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate was identified in Japan. This strain, named AA708, harbored five plasmids, one of which migrated during agarose gel electrophoresis without S1 nuclease treatment, which is indicative of a linear topology. We named this plasmid pELF1. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of the AA708 strain revealed that the complete sequence of pELF1 was 143,316 bp long and harbored both the vanA and vanM gene clusters. Furthermore, mfold analysis and WGS data show that the left end of pELF1 presumably forms a hairpin structure, unlike its right end. The pELF1 plasmid was not digested by lambda exonuclease, indicating that terminal proteins were bound to the 5′ end of the plasmid, similar to the Streptomyces linear plasmids. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results were also consistent with the exonuclease assay results. In retardation assays, DNAs containing the right end of proteinase K-untreated pELF1 did not appear to move as well as the proteinase K-treated pELF1, suggesting that terminal proteins might be attached to the right end of pELF1. Palindromic sequences formed hairpin structures at the right terminal sequence of pELF1; however, sequence similarity with the well-known linear plasmids of Streptomyces spp. was not high. pELF1 was unique as it possessed two diffe...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Authors: Giannakopoulos X, Sakkas H, Ragos V, Tsiambas E, Bozidis P, M Evangelou A, Papadopoulou C, Petrogiannopoulos L, Sofikitis N Abstract Infections in immunocompromised-neoplastic patients represent a severe complication. Among bacteria, Enterococcus species constitute a common causative pathogen of urinary tract infections (UTIs), especially among hospitalized patients with or without urinary tract carcinoma, related commonly to urinary tract abnormalities, urinary catheters or prolonged antibiotic treatment. Although enterococci have been considered more commonly as colonization bacteria in the intestine tha...
Source: Journal of B.U.ON. - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J BUON Source Type: research
In this study, we report the synthesis and antimicrobial activity of a novel sulfamethoxazole–gallic acid conjugate compound (Hybrid 1). Hybrid 1 not only showed much stronger activity than sulfamethoxazole towards Streptococcus uberis 19436, Enterococcus faecium 700221, and Enterococcus faecalis 29212, which were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), but also exhibited a promising antimicrobial effect against two E. faecalis clinical isolates, one of which was multidrug-resistant. Further studies are warranted to establish the in vivo antimicrobial activity for Hybrid 1 and develop more potent sulf...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Xenorhabdus and/or Photorhabdus bacteria produce antibacterial metabolites to protect insect cadavers against food competitors allowing them to survive in nature with their nematode host. The effects of culture supernatant produced by Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp. were investigated against the multidrug-resistant dental root canal pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The efficacy of seven different cell-free supernatants of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus species against E. faecalis was assessed with overlay bioassay and serial dilution techniques. Additionally, time-dependent inactivation of supernatant was evaluated. Among t...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
To assess the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistant (QR) bacteria, multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in rectal swabs of patients undergoing transrectal prostate biopsy and for evaluating if risk factor assessment is reliable for prediction of QR bacteria, MDR bacteria or E. faecalis.
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion. In hospital-acquired bacterial meningitis, multidrug resistance Gram negative bacteria are a huge challenge for the treatment of patients. Hence, antimicrobial stewardship should be followed to counteract with the emerging multidrug resistance isolates. PMID: 31647400 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: BurnsAuthor(s): Jin Ju Park, Yu Bin Seo, Young Kyun Choi, Dohern Kym, Jacob LeeAbstractInfection is the leading cause of mortality in severe burn patients, benefitting from periodic monitoring of changes in bacterial prevalence and antibiotic resistance trends. This single facility retrospective study evaluated blood culture results for patients hospitalized in the burn intensive care unit (BICU) from January 2012 to December 2017. A total of 969 samples from 420 patients were reviewed. Isolated pathogens were recorded by year and the number of days of hospitalizati...
Source: Burns - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
o-Artigao F Abstract A progressive increase in the incidence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms is being reported. Among these resistant microorganisms, the main threats are extended-spectrum β-lactamase-, AmpC-, and carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. To address this important problem, it is essential to establish pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship programs, perform active epidemiological surveillance and develop an adequate infection control policy. The therapeutic approach of these...
Source: Anales de Pediatria - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: An Pediatr (Barc) Source Type: research
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Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract Multidrug resistance is one of the top three threats to global public health. Understanding resistance of bacteria is important to help decrease resistance and improve the development of novel antimicrobial agents or other alternative tools to combat public health challenges. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the vancomycin and florfenicol resistance genes of five E. faecalis and 15 E. faecium isolated from patients with urinary tract infections. There were 20 Enterococcus obtained from the library collection of randomly selected private hospitals located in the city of El Qanater El Khayrey...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
This study was performed to decipher the bacterial community structure through Illumina high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and to determine the resistance profile using the Sensititre antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) conforming to clinical lab standards (NCCLS). Out of 1747 bacterial strains detected from wastewater influent and effluent, Pseudomonas was the most predominant genus related to ESKAPE in influent, with sequence reads corresponding to 21.356%, followed by Streptococcus (6.445%), Acinetobacter (0.968%), Enterococcus (0.063%), Klebsiella (0.038%), Escherichia (0.028%) and Staphylococcus (0.004%). D...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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