Current challenges: from the path of "original antigenic sin" towards the development of universal flu vaccines.

Current challenges: from the path of "original antigenic sin" towards the development of universal flu vaccines. Int Rev Immunol. 2019 Nov 09;:1-16 Authors: Biswas A, Chakrabarti AK, Dutta S Abstract Annual flu led by influenza viruses is contemplated to be one of the foremost global health challenges due to its rapid spread leading to the life-threatening epidemic or pandemic. An enormous number of people die due to flu and its associated intricacies every year. Annual vaccination is considered to be the gold standard strategy to protect the individual from acquiring infection and further decimation, although recent estimates suggest that overall flu vaccine effectiveness was within 19% to 53% in last five years. A significant weakness of current vaccination is its inability to protect an individual from different or mutant flu strain. Host immune system performs a vital role during natural infection or after vaccination leading to influenza-specific immunities. Previous imprints of common flu or vaccination may alter the outcomes of the current vaccination. Current flu vaccine regime does not consider the host immune status before vaccination. Irrespective of the previous influenza exposure history or prior flu vaccination, individual get flu vaccination based on WHO recommendation with selected strains which may be the reason why induction of broad immunities does not transpire with their testimonial. Over the last few decades, scientific res...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research

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This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Among them, 887 (48.6%) tested swIAV-positive. The proportion of positive cases remained stable year-on-year and year-round. The European avian-like swine H1N1 (H1avN1) virus was the most frequently identified (69.6%), and was widespread across the country. The European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (H1huN2) virus accounted for 22.1% and was only identified in the north-western quarter and recently in the far north. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (3.6%) was detec...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Influenza viruses cause hundreds of thousands of respiratory diseases worldwide each year, and vaccination is considered the most effective approach for preventing influenza annual epidemics or pandemics. Sinc...
Source: Journal of Biological Engineering - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Conclusions: The national preparedness plans should be updated, taking guidance from the findings in the present report, to address any emerging pandemic virus as well as attending to surges of seasonal influenza cases. PMID: 31612973 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research
Influenza infection is considered to be a serious respiratory disease in human. Annually, epidemics or even pandemics give rise to the frequent antigenetic variations of virus surface receptors, throughout the world. Bacterial infections followed by influenza are the biggest medical concerns associated with elevated mortality rates. These high morbidity and mortality rates, have become a priority in terms of health. Likewise, economic aspects of the issue have special importance also. In the present study, several articles have been investigated with regards to main key words including influenza A, secondary bacterial inf...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This analysis confirms the importance of the virological surveillance and highlights the need of a continuous monitoring of IVs circulation, to improve the most appropriate vaccination strategies. (www.actabiomedica.it). PMID: 31517888 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Bio-Medica : Atenei Parmensis - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Acta Biomed Source Type: research
by Alexander D. Becker, Amy Wesolowski, Ottar N. Bj ørnstad, Bryan T. Grenfell A key question in ecology is the relative impact of internal nonlinear dynamics and external perturbations on the long-term trajectories of natural systems. Measles has been analyzed extensively as a paradigm for consumer-resource dynamics due to the oscillatory nature of the host-pathogen life cy cle, the abundance of rich data to test theory, and public health relevance. The dynamics of measles in London, in particular, has acted as a prototypical test bed for such analysis using incidence data from the pre-vaccination era (1944–...
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Discussion With continued exposure to respiratory pathogens and the emergence of novel respiratory pathogens, personal protective equipment (PPE) and procedures are important for decreasing occupational exposure to respiratory pathogens. PPE and procedures are particularly important when anti-infective treatments or vaccination are unavailable or have limited effectiveness. Medical masks are “[a]lso known as a surgical or procedure mask. As personal protective equipment, a facial mask is intended to protect caregivers and health-care workers against droplet-transmitted pathogens, or to serve as part of facial protect...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Berenice PM, Rogelio PP Abstract Biennial H1N1pdm09 influenza A virus (IAV) epidemics have been associated with major severity of respiratory disease in Mexico. Atypically and in contrast with what happened in USA, Canada and Europe during 2017, an increase of infections due to the H1N1pdm09 pandemic virus instead of H3N2 was observed. In order to determine the viral contribution to severe acute respiratory disease, we characterized the pathogenicity determinants of IAV in Mexico during the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 seasons. The RNA segments of 20 IAV samples were sequenced by NGS platform and phylogenetic analysis ...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence, clinical presentation, and severity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)-causing serotypes and the impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination during epidemic and nonepidemic influenza periods in Catalonia, Spain. This was a prospective study in persons aged
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research
From the European Congress of Virology in Rotterdam, Vincent and local co-host Ben Berkhout speak with Ron Fouchier, Rosina Girones, and Marie-Paule Kieny about their careers and their work on influenza virus, environmental virology, and developing an Ebola virus vaccine during an epidemic. Click arrow to play Download TWiV 557 (41 MB .mp3, 67 min) Subscribe (free): iTunes, Google […]
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: This Week in Virology antigenic drift ebola virus environmental virology epidemic global health H2N2 influenza virus pandemic vaccine viral viruses viruses in water Source Type: blogs
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