Management of Children with Tuberculosis

Children carry a significant tuberculosis disease burden in settings with poor epidemic control and high levels of transmission. Even in high-resource settings, the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children can be challenging, but an accurate diagnosis can be achieved by adopting a systematic approach. This review outlines the general principles of tuberculosis prevention in children, including epidemic control, infection control, contact tracing and preventive therapy, and vaccination; diagnosing pediatric tuberculosis, including specimen collection and microbiological confirmation, highlighting key differences from adults; and tuberculosis treatment in children, including treatment of severe disease that mostly occurs in young children and drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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ConclusionGains can be attained by targeting DM individuals with interventions to reduce TB burden. Most strategies were effective with
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
A 25 year-old tuberculosis patient is treated at her home in Funafuti, the main island of Tuvalu in the South Pacific. Credit: UNDP Tuvalu/Aurélia Rusek.By External SourceUNITED NATIONS, Oct 17 2019 (IPS) A staggering 1.5 million people died from tuberculosis (TB) last year, the UN health agency said on Thursday, in an appeal for far greater funding and political support to eradicate the curable and preventable disease. Caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB commonly causes persistent coughing, fatigue and weight loss. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and its latest Global TB Report, a...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Global Headlines Health Poverty & SDGs Source Type: news
Authors: Pu F, Feng J, Yang L, Zhang L, Xia P Abstract Compared to other diseases, early or atypical spinal tuberculosis (TB) is prone to being misdiagnosed due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations and misleading negative results of various laboratory analyses and imaging examinations. Various methods for diagnosing spinal TB have become research hotspots. Recently, it has been proposed that effective vaccination is a mainstay of long-term policies to combat and control the TB epidemic. However, some new TB vaccines require further evaluation and clinical trials to demonstrate their efficiency and safety...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Discussion With continued exposure to respiratory pathogens and the emergence of novel respiratory pathogens, personal protective equipment (PPE) and procedures are important for decreasing occupational exposure to respiratory pathogens. PPE and procedures are particularly important when anti-infective treatments or vaccination are unavailable or have limited effectiveness. Medical masks are “[a]lso known as a surgical or procedure mask. As personal protective equipment, a facial mask is intended to protect caregivers and health-care workers against droplet-transmitted pathogens, or to serve as part of facial protect...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
By Jenny Dyer, Founder of the 2030 CollaborativeJuly 26, 2019Advocacy from the faith sector, particularly from the politically right-of-center voter, is now more crucial than ever.In March, the Trump Administration released its annual budget recommendations for Congress to consider for Appropriations, and for the third year in a row, this Administration recommended draconian cuts to the International Affairs Account, or our foreign assistance. For this sliver of an account representing a mere 1% of the entire U.S. budget, they recommended an overall cut of 24% to this account for FY20.In mid-May, the House Appropriations...
Source: IntraHealth International - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Nutrition Leadership and Governance Policy & Advocacy SwitchPoint Source Type: news
Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is the only currently available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), but it confers incomplete and variable protection against pulmonary TB in humans and bovine TB (bTB) in cattle. Insights into the immune response induced by BCG offer an underexploited opportunity to gain knowledge that may inform the design of a more efficacious vaccine, which is urgently needed to control these major global epidemics. Humoral immunity in TB and bTB has been neglected, but recent studies supporting a role for antibodies in protection against TB has driven a growing interest in determining their relevan...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings showed that MMP9 immune biomarkers separated LTBI indigenous individuals from NIC indigenous individuals, while CCR5, CCL11, CD14, and IFN- γ did not differentiate TB states from NIC. MMP9 may be useful as a potential biomarker for LTBI and new infected case detection among Warao indigenous individuals at high risk of developing the disease. It may also be used to halt the epidemic, which will require further validation in larger studies.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
The widespread availability and use of modern synthetic therapeutic agents have led to a massive decline in ethnomedical therapies. However, these synthetic agents often possess toxicity leading to various adverse effects. For instance, anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) is toxic, lengthy, and severely impairs host immunity, resulting in posttreatment vulnerability to reinfection and reactivation of tuberculosis (TB). Incomplete ATT enhances the risk for the generation of multidrug- or extensively drug-resistant (MDR or XDR, respectively) variants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), the TB-causing microbe. Therefore, a new...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings showed that MMP9 immune biomarkers separated LTBI indigenous individuals from NIC indigenous individuals, while CCR5, CCL11, CD14, and IFN- γ did not differentiate TB states from NIC. MMP9 may be useful as a potential biomarker for LTBI and new infected case detection among Warao indigenous individuals at high risk of developing the disease. It may also be used to halt the epidemic, which will require further validation in larger studies.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
Tuberculosis infects one quarter of the world’s population and is the leading cause of death by a single infectious agent, responsible for a reported 1.3 million deaths in 2017. While Mycobacterium tuberculosis is treatable with antibiotic therapy, the increased prevalence of drug resistance, coupled with the variable efficacy of the only widely approved vaccine, has highlighted the need for creative approaches to therapeutic and vaccine development. Historically, a productive immune response to M. tuberculosis has been thought to be nearly entirely cell-mediated, with humoral immunity being largely dismissed. Howeve...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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