The common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) and the transmission of the rabies virus to livestock: a contact network approach and recommendations for surveillance and control

Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Felipe Rocha, Ricardo Augusto DiasAbstractThe importance of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus for the transmission of the rabies virus does not lie solely in its ability to transmit this disease to other mammals, but also in its capacity to adapt to environmental and climatic changes, granting them a wide geographical distribution. Control of this disease is currently based on culling of the vampire bat and vaccination of the livestock. A transmission model incorporating geographic and behavioral determinants of the vampire bat was proposed to direct and optimize the epidemiological surveillance and control of livestock rabies. This model was built using a bimodal network connecting 260 vampire bat roosts among themselves (roost-roost-network) and with 1,557 farms (roost-farm network) in eastern Sao Paulo State, Brazil. These roosts were grouped in 9 communities, some very interconnected, and some not and the farms were grouped in 14 communities. From 2013 to 2017, 44 livestock rabies outbreaks occurred in the area, circulating among the farm communities during the entire period, with possible introductions from neighboring areas. Based on the network and environment parameters, it was possible to reasonably predict both the roosts’ occupation type (harem, bachelor, overnight and empty) and livestock rabies outbreak occurrence. The network approach brings light to ...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Emily G. Hudson, Victoria J. Brookes, Salome Dürr, Michael P. WardAbstractAustralia is free of canine rabies, however northern regions ― such as the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA), Queensland ― are at risk of an incursion from nearby rabies-infected Indonesian islands. Early detection and reactive vaccination is the current Australian policy to eradicate an incursion. Early detection in this region is challenging, so pre-emptive vaccination might be an effective strategy. The NPA dog population also has a heterogeno...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 2816: Ecological and Epidemiological Findings Associated with Zoonotic Rabies Outbreaks and Control in Moshi, Tanzania, 2017–2018 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph16162816 Authors: Niwael Mtui-Malamsha Raphael Sallu Gladys R. Mahiti Hussein Mohamed Moses OleNeselle Bachana Rubegwa Emmanuel S. Swai Selemani Makungu Edward G. Otieno Athuman M. Lupindu Erick Komba Robinson Mdegela Justine A. Assenga Jubilate Bernard Walter Marandu James Warioba Zacharia Makondo Jelly Chang’a Furaha Mramba Hezron Non...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
This study evaluated: (i) whether SINAN can be reliably used for rabies surveillance; (ii) if patients in Brazil are receiving appropriate PEP and (iii) the benefits of implementing the latest Wo rld Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on PEP. Analysing SINAN records from 2008 to 2017 reveals an average of 506,148 bite-injury patients/year [range: 437k -545k] in the country, equivalent to an incidence of 255 bite-injuries/100,000 people/year [range: 231–280]. The number of reports of bites from suspect rabid dogs generally increased over time. In most states, records from SINAN indicating a suspect rabid dog do...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
RABIES was confirmed in a steer found in Larimer County, Colorado yesterday, prompting health officials to remind pet and livestock owners to keep their animals up-to-date on vaccinations. What are the symptoms of rabies and can you get rabies from a dog bite?
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Janine F.R. Seetahal, Manuel J. Sanchez-Vazquez, Alexandra Vokaty, Christine V.F. Carrington, Ron Mahabir, Abiodun A. Adesiyun, Charles E. RupprechtAbstractVampire bat-transmitted human rabies was first recognized in Trinidad during a major outbreak during the first half of the 20th century. To date, Trinidad is the only Caribbean island with vampire bat-transmitted rabies. Herein, we summarized the epidemiological situation of rabies in Trinidad during the period 1971-2015 through the analysis of field and laboratory records. Duri...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract The rabies vaccinations coverage has been reported as 70-80% of dogs in annual reports. However, there are still outbreaks of rabies in humans and dogs in Thailand, which indicate the necessity of ensuring seroprevalence in vaccinated dogs and efficacy of human immunization. The cost effective easy competitive ELISA (CEE-cELISA) was developed for monitoring protective immunity against the rabies virus in human and dog sera by using the monoclonal antibody clone 1-46-12, which recognized a conformation epitope of rabies G protein, with an ELISA plate coated with whole viral antigen of commercial vaccine. T...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research
We report on 5 collaborative workshops and 28 semi-structured interviews conducted between January 2017 and June 2018 with: (i) EAL and NPA community members; (ii) Indigenous Rangers in EAL and NPA; and (iii) residents of Cairns, the local regional centre. Storyboard methodologies were used to work with participants and explore what rabies response measures they thought were justified or unacceptable, why they held these views, and what other steps they believed needed to be taken. Key findings include that the capacity of the NPA and EAL communities to contribute/adapt to a biosecurity response is limited by structural di...
Source: Social Science and Medicine - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Yes, you should vaccinate your pets. And no, they can’t get autism. That’s the surreal message the British Veterinary Association (BVA) is pushing out to pet owners. It comes amid a mounting trend of individuals who refuse to vaccinate their dogs due to a mistaken belief that shots can cause autism. This theory — which originally stems from a widely discredited and later retracted 1998 study that purported to find a link between autism and the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine — has been repeatedly disproven in humans, and has no scientific basis when it comes to animals. “There’s currently ...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Autism healthytime onetime Source Type: news
Discussion This case study illustrated not only the veracity of the maxim “chance favors the prepared mind” exquisitely because of the judicious, albeit auspicious, identification of the assiduous bacterium by the owner’s veterinarian, but also the high level of patient care that can potentially be achieved when veterinary personnel actively foster working relationships with their local public health counterparts. In this case, the owner was prophylactically treated with doxycycline for F. tularensis exposure within 24 hours of being bitten and given the rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (human rabies imm...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
James McGrane, FAO ECTAD Indonesia Team Leader, at his office in Jakarta. Credit: Kanis Dursin/IPSBy Kanis DursinJAKARTA, Indonesia, Jul 10 2017 (IPS)Poultry farmer Bambang Sutrisno Setiawan had long heard about biosecurity but never gave serious thought to it, even when the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 forced him to cull thousands of his layer chickens in 2003 and 2009.Eighteen years into the business, however, Bambang, who is called Ilung by friends, is now converting his second farm into a three-zone biosecurity poultry with a strong conviction that it is the only way to save his business amid continued threat...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Asia-Pacific Economy & Trade Featured Food & Agriculture Headlines Health Projects avian flu biosafety Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Improving the lives of rural populations: better nutrition & agricultu Source Type: news
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