Acetaldehyde induces phosphorylation of dynamin-related protein 1 and mitochondrial dysfunction via elevating intracellular ROS and Ca2+ levels

In this study, it was found that acetaldehyde treatment induced excessive mitochondrial fragmentation, impaired mitochondrial function and caused cytotoxicity in cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. Further analyses showed that acetaldehyde induced the phosphorylation of mitochondrial fission related protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) at Ser616 and promoted its translocation to mitochondria. The elevation of Drp1 phosphorylation was partly dependent on the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), as N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment inhibited the activation of JNK and p38MAPK while attenuated Drp1 phosphorylation in acetaldehyde-treated cells. In addition, acetaldehyde treatment elevated intracellular Ca2+ level and activated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Pretreatment of CaMKII inhibitor prevented Drp1 phosphorylation in acetaldehyde-treated cells and ameliorated acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting that CaMKII was a key effector mediating acetaldehyde-induced Drp1 phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Taken together, acetaldehyde induced cytotoxicity by promoting excessive Drp1 phosphorylation and mitochondrial fragmentation. Both ROS and Ca2+-mediated signaling pathways played important roles in acetaldehyde-induced Drp1 phosphorylation. The results also suggested that prevention of oxidative stress by antioxidants might be beneficia...
Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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This study aims to describe the gender and age differences in the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in Taiwan. Methods: The data on dementia and AD were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2004 to 2010. The sex and age-specific rates were standardized, and the differences of gender and age on dementia or AD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. Results: Over seven years, the prevalence of dementia and AD significantly increased from 4.7 to 7.6 per hundred people (β = 0.0784, p
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Abstract Neurological diseases particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke, and epilepsy are on the rise all around the world causing morbidity and mortality globally with a common symptom of gradual loss or impairment of motor behaviour. Striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia, is involved in facilitating voluntary movement while the cerebellum is involved in the maintenance of balance and coordination of voluntary movements. Dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate, to name a few, interact in regulating the excitation and inhibition of motor neuro...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Abstract Globally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components which are the major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, is higher among patients with severe mental illness (SMI) compared to the general population. This is mainly due to the deleterious lifestyles characterized by physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and unhealthy diets common among patients with SMI as well as due to cardiometabolic effects of psychotropic medications. Despite these conditions being highly prevalent among patients with SMI, little attention is given to these conditions during routine...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that FXR regulates Aß-induced neuronal apoptosis, which may be dependent on the CREB/BDNF signaling pathway in vitro. PMID: 31812977 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Enzyme and Microbial TechnologyAuthor(s): Liuyan Gu, Haibo Yuan, Xueqin Lv, Guangsheng Li, Rigang Cong, Jianghua Li, Guocheng Du, Long LiuAbstract5-Methylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid (MPCA) is an important pharmaceutical intermediate and is used in the production of hypoglycemic agents and lipid-lowering drugs. This work aimed to develop a whole-cell biocatalytic process for the efficient synthesis of MPCA from 2, 5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP). Firstly, a whole-cell biocatalyst Escherichia coli strain was constructed by plasmid-based expression of xylene monooxygenase (XMO...
Source: Enzyme and Microbial Technology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: PolymerAuthor(s): Weilong Chen, Kun Wu, Qi Liu, Mangeng LuAbstractSurface modification of filler is often utilized to effectively reduce interfacial thermal resistance in thermal conductive materials. In this work, pristine graphite was modified via Diels-Alder reaction with acrylic acid to improve the inertness of graphite (AA@G). FT-IR, Raman and XPS confirmed the reaction onto the surface of graphite. A series of poly (vinyl alcohol) composite loaded with AA@G and graphite was fabricated to investigate the interfacial interaction between matrix and filler. Both X...
Source: Polymer - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: PolymerAuthor(s): M. Socka, A. Michalski, I.M. Pelin, A. Pawlak, F. Tanasa, T. Biela, M. BaskoAbstractBiomimetic composites based on star-shaped poly(2,2-dimethyl trimethylene carbonate)s fitted with carboxyl end-groups (PDTC(COOH)4) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were prepared using grinding technique under solvent free conditions. The required carboxyl groups were introduced at the polymer by reaction of hydroxyl groups with succinic anhydride. The synthesis of star-shaped, hydroxyl terminated precursors was achieved applying ring-opening polymerization of 2,2-dimethyl t...
Source: Polymer - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These data impose a closer follow-up of smokers and pre-neoplastic cases and the utility of the broadspectrum polymerase chain reaction assay in laryngeal dysplastic and cancer lesions. This study may allow to develop biomarkers for early detection or recurrence surveillance, to identify therapeutic targets, and to begin individualization of treatment based on the biology of these tumours. KEY WORDS: HPV infection, Larynx, Laryngeal chronic hyperplastic inflammation, Squamous cell carcinoma. PMID: 31814599 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia - Category: Surgery Tags: Ann Ital Chir Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Journal of Environmental SciencesAuthor(s): Jun Yang, Yutong Xue, Yuxi Liu, Jiguang Deng, Xiyun Jiang, Huan Chen, Hongxing DaiAbstractMesoporous Co3O4 (meso-Co3O4)-supported Pt (0.53 wt% Pt/meso-Co3O4) was synthesized via the KIT-6-templating and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-assisted reduction routes. Mesoporous CoO (meso-CoO) was fabricated through in situ reduction of meso-Co3O4 with glycerol, and the 0.18–0.69 wt% Pt/meso-CoO samples were generated by the PVA-assisted reduction method. Meso-Co3O4 and meso-CoO were of cubic crystal structure and the Pt ...
Source: Journal of Environmental Sciences - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 155Author(s): Peter K. Jonason, Daniel Talbot, Mitchell L. Cunningham, Jill ChonodyAbstractMany roads to psychological health exist, yet most are likely to conform to systematic, higher-order patterns. In a representative (on age and sex) sample of Australians (N = 1,232) and a Mechanical Turk sample from the USA (N = 602), secondary principle components analyses were conducted on two related measures of lower-order coping strategies (e.g., denial, active planning) revealing three similar (but not identical), higher-ord...
Source: Personality and Individual Differences - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
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