A 26-week 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 oral toxicity study in Beagle dogs
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Regulatory Toxicology and PharmacologyAuthor(s): Yonglin Gao, Guangfei Wang, Tong Wang, Guisheng Li, Jian Lin, Liqin Sun, Xuran Wu, Xilin Sun, Hongbo Wang, Chunmei Li, Jingwei Tian, Jing Zhu, Kezhou Wang, Susan ChoAbstract20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 is a red ginseng-derived compound with the formula C42H72O13 that has been increasingly used by humans, leading to safety concerns regarding this use. In the current study, we conducted a 26-week study during which 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (0, 7, 20, or 60 mg/kg) was continuously administered orally to Beagle dogs in order to explore its toxicity in these animals, with control dogs receiving a vehicle capsule. In total, 10 dogs received each dose of this compound (n = 5 male, n = 5 female per dose). Animals were continuously monitored for a 26-week administration period and a subsequent 4-week follow-up recovery period. At the end of study, we observed no evidence of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 toxicity in clinical indications, body weight, food intake, ophthalmoscopy, electrocardiogram, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross and histopathology findings. However, the kidney relative weight of animals receiving 60 mg/kg of compound was significantly elevated relative to control animals (5.15 ± 0.88‰ vs. 4.11 ± 0.59‰. P
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
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