Role of myeloid cells in the immunosuppressive microenvironment in gliomas.

Role of myeloid cells in the immunosuppressive microenvironment in gliomas. Immunobiology. 2019 Oct 19;: Authors: Locarno CV, Simonelli M, Carenza C, Capucetti A, Stanzani E, Lorenzi E, Persico P, Della Bella S, Passoni L, Mavilio D, Bonecchi R, Locati M, Savino B Abstract Glioma is the most common primary brain cancer, and half of patients present a diagnosis of glioblastoma (GBM), its most aggressive and lethal form. Conventional therapies, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have not resulted in major ameliorations in GBM survival outcome, which remains extremely poor. Recent immunotherapy improvements for other tumors, coupled with growing knowledge of the complex interactions between malignant glioma cells and the immune system, led to an exponential increase in glioma immunotherapy research. However, immunotherapeutic strategies in GBM have not yet reached their full potential, mainly due to the limited understanding of the strong immunosuppressive microenvironment (TME) characterizing this tumor. Glioma-associated macrophages and microglia (GAMs) are key drivers of the local immunosuppression promoting tumor progression and its resistance to immunomodulating therapeutic strategies. Together with other myeloid cells, such as dendritic cells and neutrophils, GAMs actively shape glioma TME, modulate anti-tumoral immune response and support angiogenesis, tumor cell invasion and proliferation. In this review, we discuss the role of myelo...
Source: Immunobiology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

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Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion Several TISC-based immunotherapeutic approaches are under development in various stages of preclinical studies. As outlined in this review article, a careful and more exhaustive genetic and metabolic understanding of TISC-associated phenotypes is critical to develop novel TISC based immunotherapies. Various components within the tumor microenvironment such as tumor cells, infiltrating immune cells, and supporting stromal cells impact the TISC metabolism. This unique metabolic profile leads to upregulation of certain enzymes and proteins such as ALDH1, CEP55, IDO COA1 etc., which can be utilized for development ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our WGCNA analysis identified candidate prognostic biomarkers for further basic and clinical researches. Introduction Breast cancer is a frequently diagnosed malignancy and the leading cause of cancer death among females around the world, accounting for 24% of cancer diagnoses and 15% of cancer deaths in females. According to Global Cancer Statistics 2018, there will be nearly 2.1 million new cases diagnosed globally, with ~62 thousand deaths. The incident rates of breast cancer increased in most developing countries during last decades, resulting from a combination of social and economic factors, incl...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, the immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that DEPDC1 was high-expressed in breast cancer tissues compared with the paired adjacent normal breast tissues, and its tendency at protein level was consistent with mRNA level from TCGA data. Moreover, DEPDC1 mRNA level revealed the strongest association with poor prognosis and development in breast cancer. In vitro assays showed that DEPDC1 overexpression resulted in significant promotion of proliferation by regulating cell cycle in MCF-7 cells, whilst an opposite effect was found in the MDA-MB-231 cells with DEPDC1 deletion. Notably, further investigation ind...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), also called WHO Grade IV malignant glioma, is one of the most aggressive brain cancers due to its resistance to all current forms of treatment, including drug intervention and ionizing radiation (IR). GBM can arise from primary glioblastoma or progress from a low-grade glioma. In the clinic, GBM patients have a median survival of less than 15  months [1], and GBM tumors are highly recurrent even after surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT), and immunotherapy.
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes normative data for a model exploiting dogs with naturally occurring glioma, which can be used to test novel therapies prior to translation to human trials. Further work will focus on the effects of different therapies, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy. PMID: 30234401 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cancer Investigation - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Invest Source Type: research
Authors: Sun S, Du G, Xue J, Ma J, Ge M, Wang H, Tian J Abstract Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is highly expressed in human glioblastoma and involved in tumor immune escape and resistance to chemotherapy, is clinically correlated with tumor progression and poor clinical outcomes, and is a promising therapeutic target for glioblastoma. IDO inhibitors are marginally efficacious as single-agents; therefore, combination with other therapies holds promise for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects and mechanisms of the IDO inhibitor PCC0208009 in combination with temoz...
Source: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 November 2017 Source:Life Sciences, Volume 188 Author(s): Eunice L. Lozada-Delgado, Nilmary Grafals-Ruiz, Pablo E. Vivas-Mejía Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest type of primary brain tumor with a prognosis of 14months after diagnosis. Current treatment for GBM patients includes “total” tumor resection, temozolomide-based chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination of these options. Although, several targeted therapies, gene therapy, and immunotherapy are currently in the clinic and/or in clinical trials, the overall survival of GBM patients has hardly imp...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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