Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Action in Reproductive Tissues

The role of growth hormone (GH) in human fertility is widely debated with some studies demonstrating improvements in oocyte yield, enhanced embryo quality, and in some cases increased live births with concomitant decreases in miscarriage rates. However, the basic biological mechanisms leading to these clinical differences are not well-understood. GH and the closely-related insulin-like growth factor (IGF) promote body growth and development via action on key metabolic organs including the liver, skeletal muscle, and bone. In addition, their expression and that of their complementary receptors have also been detected in various reproductive tissues including the oocyte, granulosa, and testicular cells. Therefore, the GH/IGF axis may directly regulate female and male gamete development, their quality, and ultimately competence for implantation. The ability of GH and IGF to modulate key signal transduction pathways such as the MAP kinase/ERK, Jak/STAT, and the PI3K/Akt pathway along with the subsequent effects on cell division and steroidogenesis indicates that these growth factors are centrally located to alter cell fate during proliferation and survival. In this review, we will explore the function of GH and IGF in regulating normal ovarian and testicular physiology, while also investigating the effects on cell signal transduction pathways with subsequent changes in cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. The aim is to clarify the role of GH in human fertility from a molecular...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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Source: Academic Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
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Source: Browsing - Category: Databases & Libraries Tags: midwifery Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological induction is an effective and safe treatment method of first trimester abortion in the majority of cases. The knowledge of factors influencing the efficacy of misoprostol may help clinicians in proper counselling and individualisation of therapy. PMID: 31816221 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neuroendocrinology Letters - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Neuro Endocrinol Lett Source Type: research
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of β-cell dysfunction and abnormal glucose metabolism [fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 5.1 mmol/L] among non-diabetic women with recurrent miscarriages and to establish if there was an association between RM and β-cell dysfunction and FBG ≥ 5.1 mmol/L.MethodologyThis was a cross-sectional study involving 80 women with miscarriages at  ≤ 13 weeks gestation and 80 women with normal pregnancies at ≤ 13 weeks of gestation with at least one successful live-birth and no history of miscarria...
Source: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Condition:   Miscarriage Intervention:   Sponsor:   University Hospital, Montpellier Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
(Thomas Jefferson University) An interdisciplinary team of researchers explore how women use the platform to talk openly about the emotional distress of a miscarriage and how social media can inform patient care.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
ConclusionOur findings are consistent with previous studies based on affected-population preferences. This concordance should be reassuring from a policy perspective and can inform the design of publicly funded prenatal screening programs.
Source: The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
We present a 21-year-old female with no medical history who presented to the emergency department for confusion, hallucinations, weakness, and falls. She was accompanied by her roommates, who endorsed significant nitrous oxide abuse. Imaging revealed a large cerebral sinus venous thr ombus with extension into the transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus and internal jugular vein. She had no prior history of venous or arterial thrombosis. Hypercoagulability workup demonstrated an elevated homocysteine level, elevated methylmalonic acid level, and normal cobalamin and folate levels. Additi onally, she was found to be 11 weeks pr...
Source: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
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Source: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Fetal Pediatr Pathol Source Type: research
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Source: Reproductive BioMedicine Online - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
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