Neuroprotective Effects of Melatonin during Demyelination and Remyelination Stages in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the myelin sheath, and melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. The present study evaluated the protective effect of melatonin on demyelination and remyelination processes in male and female mice with experimental MS induced by cuprizone. This model of experimental MS in mice is widely used because cuprizone administration causes an artificial demyelination reaction through oligodendrocyte apoptosis, while its withdrawal leads to spontaneous remyelination. Male and female SWR/J mice (n = 78) were divided into three main groups (control, cuprizone, and cuprizone + melatonin), which were each further subdivided into males and females. Cuprizone was orally administered at a dose of 400 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 5 weeks. In addition, melatonin was intraperitoneally administered for 9 weeks at a dose of 80 mg/kg/day. During the demyelination stage, melatonin exhibited a neuroprotective function in both male and female mice. This was evidenced by improved locomotor activity, increased antioxidant levels (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione), and reduced levels of malondialdehyde and inflammatory factors (interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in male and female mice. However, the effect of melatonin during the remyelination stage varied between sexes; male mice experienced protective effects following melatonin admin...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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This study shows that CA are released from periventricular and subpial regions to the cerebrospinal fluid and are present in the cervical lymph nodes, into which cerebrospinal fluid drains through the meningeal lymphatic system. We also show that CA can be phagocytosed by macrophages. We conclude that CA can act as containers that remove waste products from the brain and may be involved in a mechanism that cleans the brain. Moreover, we postulate that CA may contribute in some autoimmune brain diseases, exporting brain substances that interact with the immune system, and hypothesize that CA may contain brain markers that m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): N.B. Teixeira, M.B. Sant'Anna, A.C. Giardini, L.P. Araujo, L.A. Fonseca, A.S. Basso, Y. Cury, G. PicoloAbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a Central Nervous System inflammatory demyelinating disease that has as primary symptoms losses of sensory and motor functions, including chronic pain. To date, however, few studies have investigated the mechanisms of chronic pain in animal models of MS since locomotor impairments render difficult its evaluation. It was previously demonstrated that in the MOG35-55-induced EAE, an animal mod...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: Meta GeneAuthor(s): Dunya Fareed SalloomAbstractBackgroundMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative autoimmune disease mediated by autoreactive T cells against myelin-basic proteins. Cytokines are suggested to play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Among these cytokines is interleukin-2 (IL-2).Aim of the studyTo investigate the association between IL2+166 G/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP: rs2069763) and MS in Iraqi patients. Serum level of IL-2 was also detected. Anti-rubella IgG antibody was further determined in the sera of patien...
Source: Meta Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is renowned for its ability to drive the chemotaxis of myeloid and lymphoid cells. It orchestrates the migration of these cell types both during physiological immune defense and in pathological circumstances, such as autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis, as well as infectious diseases, obesity, diabetes, and various types of cancer. However, new data suggest that the scope of CCL2's functions may extend beyond its original characterization as a chemoattractant. Emerging evidence shows that i...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe downregulation in the expression of QKI-V5 in the blood of patients with CNS-inflammatory-demyelinating-diseases and in the brain and blood of EAE mice is likely caused by a circulating factor and might promote re-myelination by regulation of myelin-associated genes. Key words: QKI variants, Multiple sclerosis (MS), Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), Astrocytes, Demyelination.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our study showed decreased antioxidant capacity in newly diagnosed MS patients compared to controls. We failed to find association of subclinical atherosclerosis with oxidative stress in newly diagnosed MS. PMID: 31816220 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neuroendocrinology Letters - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Neuro Endocrinol Lett Source Type: research
AbstractThe renin angiotensin system (RAS), which is classically known for blood pressure regulation, has functions beyond this. There are two axes of RAS that work to counterbalance each other and are active throughout the body, including the CNS. The pathological axis, consisting of angiotensin II (A1-8), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), is upregulated in many CNS diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the CNS characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal degeneration. Published research has described in...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
UCLA scientists have discovered one reason why autoimmune diseases are more prevalent in women than in men. While males inherit their mother ’s X chromosome and father’s Y chromosome, females inherit X chromosomes from both parents. New research, which shows differences in how each of those X chromosomes is regulated, suggests that the X chromosome that females get from their father may help to explain their more active immune system .“It’s been known for many years that women are more susceptible to autoimmune diseases than men are,” said lead study author Dr. Rhonda Voskuhl, a UCLA professor...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
In conclusion, our data suggest that DKI and microstructural modeling can provide a unique contrast capable of detecting EAE-specific changes correlating with clinical disability.
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Contributors : David Schafflick ; Maike Hartlenert ; Andreas Schulte-Mecklenbeck ; Tobias Lautwein ; Jolien Wolbert ; Gerd M HorsteSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensCerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protects the central nervous system (CNS) and analyzing CSF aids the diagnosis of CNS diseases, but our understanding of CSF leukocytes remains superficial. Here, using single cell transcriptomics, we identified a specific border-associated composition and transcriptome of CSF leukocytes. Multiple sclerosis (MS) – an autoimmune disease of the CNS – increased transcription...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
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