Immunosuppressive Effects of Sialostatin L1 and L2 Isolated from the Taiga Tick Ixodes persulcatus Schulze

Publication date: Available online 10 November 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Yamato Sajiki, Satoru Konnai, Akie Ochi, Tomohiro Okagawa, Naftaly Githaka, Masayoshi Isezaki, Shinji Yamada, Takuya Ito, Shuji Ando, Hiroki Kawabata, Carlos Logullo, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Naoya Maekawa, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko OhashiAbstractTick saliva contains immunosuppressants which are important to obtain a blood meal and enhance the infectivity of tick-borne pathogens. In Japan, Ixodes persulcatus is a major vector for Lyme borreliosis pathogens, such as Borrelia garinii, as well as for those causing relapsing fever, such as B. miyamotoi. To date, little information is available on bioactive salivary molecules, produced by this tick. Thus, in this study, we identified two proteins, I. persulcatus derived sialostatin L1 (Ip-sL1) and sL2 (Ip-sL2), as orthologs of I. scapularis derived sL1 and sL2. cDNA clones of Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 shared a high identity with sequences of sL1 and sL2 isolated from the salivary glands of I. scapularis. Semi-quantitative PCR revealed that Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 were expressed in the salivary glands throughout the life of the tick. In addition, Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 were expressed even before the ticks started feeding, and their expression continued during blood feeding. Recombinant Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 were developed to characterize the proteins via biological and immunological analyses. These analyses revealed that both Ip-sL1 and Ip-sL2 had inhibi...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Hein Sprong, Sander Moonen, Sipke E. van Wieren, Tim R. HofmeesterAbstractCattle grazing has been suggested to reduce the risk for Lyme borreliosis by decreasing the density of questing Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. We tested the hypotheses that cattle grazing used in woodland management decreases the density of questing I. ricinus, and that it decreases the nympal infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. We further expected the nympal infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens that ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
(CNN/CBS) — The climate crisis is making us more vulnerable to ticks in an unprecedented and growing threat to public health, according to a new report. Bacterial and protozoan tick-borne diseases doubled in the United States between 2004 and 2016, the report notes, and in 2017, more than 90% of the 60,000 vector-borne diseases in the United States were linked to these particular bloodsucking bugs. The warmer temperatures brought by the climate crisis, in addition to ecological changes and reforestation, have extended the bugs’ range into regions that had not seen certain types of ticks for many decades, if eve...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Boston News Health Syndicated CBSN Boston Lone Star Tick ticks Source Type: news
In this study, we determined the crystal structures of the key outer surface protein BBE31 from B. burgdorferi and its orthologous protein BSE31 (BSPA14S_RS05060 gene product) from B. spielmanii. BBE31 is known to be important for the transfer of B. burgdorferi from the gut to the hemolymph in the tick after a tick bite. While BBE31 exerts its function by interacting with the Ixodes scapularis tick gut protein TRE31, structural and mass spectrometry data revealed that BBE31 has a glutathione (GSH) covalently attached to Cys142 suggesting that the protein may have acquired some additional functions in contrast to its orthol...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Lyme disease is caused by a tick-borne bacterium Borrelia sp. This zoonotic infection is common in the Northern Hemisphere, e.g., Europe. Clinical presentation may involve multisystem symptoms and depends on the stage of the disease. The involvement of nervous system in Lyme disease is commonly referred to as neuroborreliosis. Neuroborreliosis may involve meningitis, mononeuritis multiplex, or cranial neuritis including the inflammation of vestibulocochlear nerve. In the late or chronic stage of Lyme disease, vestibular involvement may be the sole presentation, although such cases are rare. Our study was designed to presen...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Tick-borne pathogens pose a considerable disease burden in Europe and North America, where increasing numbers of human cases and the emergence of new tick-borne pathogens has renewed interest in resolving the mechanisms underpinning their geographical distribution and abundance. For Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus, transmission of infection from one generation of ticks to another occurs when older nymphal ticks infect younger larval ticks feeding on the same host, either indirectly via systemic infection of the vertebrate host or directly when feeding in close proximity. Here,...
Source: Theoretical Population Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Theor Popul Biol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential danger from the inadvertent introduction of novel disease pathogens and vectors. Awareness of co-infections and Dermacentor reticulatus-related pathogens needs to be increased. PMID: 31694625 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: BMC Vet Res Source Type: research
Rationale: Both Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group Rickettsiae (SFGR) are pathogens carried by ticks. There is a possibility of co-infection with these tick-borne diseases. Patient concerns: Male patient, 63 years-of-age, admitted to hospital with skin rash presenting for 1 week and fever with cough and expectoration for 3 days before admission. Diagnoses: We diagnosed that the patient was co-infected by B burgdorferi sl and SFGR using laboratory test results and the patient's clinical manifestations. Interventions: The patient started therapy with oral minocycline, then levofloxacin by intr...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
ConclusionB. burgdorferi is unusual in that it expresses three distinct MTNs (cytoplasmic, membrane bound, and secreted) that are effectively inactivated by nucleoside analogs.General significanceThe Borrelia MTNs appear to be promising targets for developing new antibiotics to treat Lyme disease.
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
This study documents a high prevalence in ticks of Rickettsia spp. thought to be endosymbionts, a low prevalence of relapsing fever group Borrelia in ticks, and a lack of detection of Lyme disease-group Borrelia in both ticks and mammals in an east Texas forested recreation area. Additionally, we observed low questing tick density in areas with a history of controlled burns. These results expand knowledge of tick-borne disease ecology in east Texas which can aid in directing future investigative, modeling, and management efforts.
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Nicole E. Breuner, Shelby L. Ford, Andrias Hojgaard, Lynn M. Osikowicz, Christina M. Parise, Maria F. Rosales Rizzo, Ying Bai, Michael L. Levin, Rebecca J. Eisen, Lars EisenAbstractThe invasive, human-biting Asian longhorned tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, was detected in New Jersey in the eastern United States in August of 2017 and by November of 2018 this tick had been recorded from 45 counties across 9 states, primarily along the Eastern Seaboard. The establishment of H. longicornis in the United States has raised the ques...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
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