Episodic Prenatal Exposure To Ethanol Affects Postnatal Neurogenesis In The Macaque Dentate Gyrus And Visual Recognition Memory.

Episodic Prenatal Exposure To Ethanol Affects Postnatal Neurogenesis In The Macaque Dentate Gyrus And Visual Recognition Memory. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2019 Nov 06;: Authors: Fedorchak AV, Miller MW Abstract Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a prime cause of cognitive dysfunction. The present study tested the hypotheses (a) that gestational ethanol exposure results in deficits in hippocampal-related behaviors and associated neurogenesis and (b) that the period of gastrulation is a time of vulnerability. Pregnant macaques were intubated with ethanol or saline once per week for 3, 6, or 24 weeks. Exposures included or omitted the period of gastrulation. Offspring were given behavioral tests including a Visual-Paired Comparison (VPC), a hippocampal-associated memory task, and euthanized as adolescents. Their dentate gyri were processed for immunohistochemical identification of cells passing through the cell cycle (Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen), exiting the cell cycle (p21), or passing through early stages of neuronal morphogenesis (Tuj1). Performance in neurobehavioral tasks was unaffected by ethanol exposure, the notable exception being performance in the VPC that was poorer for macaques exposed to ethanol including gastrulation. Anatomical studies show that the expression of Ki-67 was greater and ratio of p21-positive cells to the ratio of Ki-67-expressing cells was lower in animals in which the ethanol exposure included gastrulation. On the ot...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research

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Publication date: 10 February 2020Source: Neuroscience, Volume 427Author(s): Alessandro Ieraci, Daniel G. HerreraAbstractDrinking alcohol during pregnancy is particularly detrimental for the developing brain and may cause a broad spectrum of cognitive and behavioral impairments, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). While behavioral abnormalities and brain damage have been widely investigated in animal models of FASD, the sex differences in the vulnerability to perinatal ethanol exposure have received less consideration. Here we investigated the long-term behavioral and molecular effects of acute et...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
BACKGROUND: Binge drinking (BD) is a serious risk factor for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and associated with more severe forms of the disorder. Thus, special attention to specific risk factors for BD adjacent to and during pregnancy is warrante...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: Maternal ACEs were common in this middle to upper-middle income, well-educated sample and impacted the next generation through BD in pregnancy. These findings combine with others to speak to the public health significance of maternal ACEs on alcohol-related behaviour among expectant mothers across the socioeconomic spectrum, and the need for targeted evidence-based interventions for this population. PMID: 31896532 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Child Abuse and Neglect - Category: Child Development Authors: Tags: Child Abuse Negl Source Type: research
The dangers of alcohol begin at the first sip of the first drink. Although most responsible drinking habits shouldn’t be cause for major concern, everyone who drinks runs the risk of encountering the negative effects of alcohol. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans defines moderate drinking as up to 1 drink per day for women and up to 2 drinks per day for men.  A single drink is considered as: 12 ounces of beer (5% alcohol content) 8 ounces of malt liquor (7% alcohol content) 5 ounces of wine (12% alcohol content) 1.5 ounces of 80-proof (40% alcohol content) distilled spirits or liquor (e.g., gin, rum, vodka, ...
Source: Cliffside Malibu - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Alcohol Rehab Information Alcoholism alcohol abuse alcohol dependence alcohol dependency alcohol detox alcohol treatment alcohol treatment center alcohol treatment facility Alcoholics Anonymous Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Alessandro Ieraci, Daniel G. HerreraAbstractDrinking alcohol during pregnancy is particularly detrimental for the developing brain and may cause a broad spectrum of cognitive and behavioral impairments, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While behavioral abnormalities and brain damage have been widely investigated in animal models of FASD, the sex differences in the vulnerability to perinatal ethanol exposure have received less consideration. Here we investigated the long-term behavioral and molecular effects of ac...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show an association between PE-induced morphological activation of microglia and impaired DA neuron morphology in the VTA. Importantly, postnatal environmental intervention rescues possible PE-induced microglial activation. These data support that environmental intervention can be effective in ameliorating cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with VTA DA neuron dysfunctions, such as attention deficits and increased addiction risk. PMID: 31872887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
Conclusions: Metric vertical measurements of the face can be used as additional objective criteria for FAS diagnoses. However, no significant differences were reported for palatal depth evaluation in the specific age range tested in the present study.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preventable alcohol-related developmental disability fetal alcohol syndrome. In Zambia, alcohol use and associated ris...
Source: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Jacob is just past 30 by a year or two. He is, as I like to describe him, a little boy trapped inside a man’s body and very much mentally ill. He started off with fetal alcohol syndrome, which means his mother drank heavily when she was pregnant. I am not sure I believe that […]Find jobs at  Careers by KevinMD.com.  Search thousands of physician, PA, NP, and CRNA jobs now.  Learn more.
Source: Kevin, M.D. - Medical Weblog - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Patient Psychiatry Source Type: blogs
Abstract BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a promising biomarker for gestational alcohol exposure. Studies show PEth accumulation in maternal and fetal blood following alcohol exposure, however, distribution of specific PEth homologues (16:0/18:1, 16:0/18:2, 16:0/20:4) in maternal and fetal blood is unknown. Additionally, PEth levels in highly vulnerable FASD targets in maternal and fetal compartments remain unexplored. We hypothesized that all three major PEth homologues will be detectable in the maternal and fetal blood, the maternal uterine artery (a reproductive tissue that delivers oxygen and nutrient...
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
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