Modeling Psychiatric Diseases with Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Modeling Psychiatric Diseases with Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1192:297-312 Authors: van Hugte E, Nadif Kasri N Abstract Neuropsychiatric disorders are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are challenging to model and treat, due to their underlying complex genetic architecture and clinical variability. Presently, increasingly more studies are making use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons, reprogrammed from patient somatic cells, to model neuropsychiatric disorders. iPSC-derived neurons offer the possibility to recapitulate relevant disease biology in the context of the individual patient genetic background. In addition to disease modeling, iPSC-derived neurons offer unprecedented opportunities in drug screening. In this chapter, the current status of iPSC disease modeling for neuropsychiatric disorders is presented. Both 2D and 3D disease modeling approaches are discussed as well as the generation of different neuronal cell types that are relevant for studying neuropsychiatric disorders. Moreover, the advantages and limitations are highlighted in addition to the future perspectives of using iPSC-derived neurons in the uncovering of robust cellular phenotypes that consecutively have the potential to lead to clinical developments. PMID: 31705501 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): Ryan N. Serio, Lorraine J. GudasAbstractEthanol (EtOH) is a recreationally ingested compound that is both teratogenic and carcinogenic in humans. Because of its abundant consumption worldwide and the vital role of stem cells in the formation of birth defects and cancers, delineating the effects of EtOH on stem cell function is currently an active and urgent pursuit of scientific investigation to explicate some of the mechanisms contributing to EtOH toxicity. Stem cells represent a primordial, undifferentiated phase of devel...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The use of this novel cartilage restoration surgical technique provides excellent clinical, functional, and MRI-based outcomes in young, active individuals with full-thickness cartilage or osteochondral defects. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV-Therapeutic case series. PMID: 31835970 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) Source Type: research
ConclusionsOral complications in HSCT survivors are common and may include GVHD, dry mouth, and taste changes. All patients must be screened prior to HSCT and followed up by a dentist periodically to assess the oral health status and modify treatment, if needed.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis baseline report reveals variations in dental diseases, oral hygiene practices, and dental treatments rendered before HSCT among different study centers. Establishment of an international standard of care for dental treatment before HSCT is needed. Prospective OraStem study data will increase the understanding of risk factors related to oral complications during HSCT.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Volume 129, Issue 1Author(s): LEONARDO AMARAL DOS REIS, RENATA LUCENA MARKMAN, LIANA PRETTO WEBBER, PABLO AGUSTIN VARGAS, JACKS JORGE, CRISTIANE HELENA SQUARIZE, ROGERIO CASTILHOMucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) are the most common malignancy of the salivary glands. Dysfunctional clock signaling is observed in a variety of pathologic conditions. Members of the clock gene family are upregulated in tumor cells. We explored the role of the mTOR signaling pathway, commonly found upregulated in tumors including in MEC, oral squam...
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Conclusions: The 2 OSCC cell lines presented distinct patterns of cancer stem cells surface markers. Further experiments will be needed to better characterize the CSCs populations present in SCC9 and SCC9 ZsGreen LN1 cell lines. (FAPESP 14/20832-3).
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
We report 2 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma in male patients with FA who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Both patients presented with oral lichenoid lesions, compatible with chronic graft vs host disease. In the first case, a 16-year-old patient presented with an extensive infiltrative and necrotic lesion on the border of the tongue.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder that can cause bone marrow failure and increased risk for malignancies. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with FA also increases the risk of tumors. The following reported case is of a male patient, diagnosed with AF, with a history of HSCT at 4 years of age. At 14 years old, he presented with a painless ulcerated lesion, irregular borders, 3 cm in size, on the right lateral border of the tongue with a 20-day course, associated with a submandibular lymphadenopathy.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
We report 2 cases of patients diagnosed with aplastic anemia that underwent surgical dental procedures. Patient 1, male, 27 years old, 4000 platelets/mm3, needed extraction of the 3 left inferior molars. Patient 2, female, 18 years old, 5000 platelets/mm3, had referred pain in the first left lower molar with the need of extraction.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major late complication in patients treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is defined as a multisystem alloimmune and autoimmunelike disorder characterized by immune dysregulation, immune deficiency, impaired end-organ function, and decreased survival. Chronic GVHD resembles both clinically and histologically, many autoimmune disorders and other immunologic diseases. The oral cavity is the second most commonly involved organ system, behind skin involvement and can present as mucosal erythema, lichenoid lesions, ulcerated mucosa, and leukoplakia lesion...
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
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