Effects of Diabetes on Bone Material Properties

AbstractPurpose of ReviewIndividuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM) have an increased risk of bone fracture compared to non-diabetic controls that is not explained by differences in BMD, BMI, or falls. Thus, bone tissue fracture resistance may be reduced in individuals with DM. The purpose of this review is to summarize work that analyzes the effects of T1DM and T2DM on bone tissue compositional and mechanical properties.Recent FindingsStudies of clinical T2DM specimens revealed increased mineralization and advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) concentrations and significant relationships between mechanical performance and composition of cancellous bone. Specifically, in femoral cancellous tissue, compressive stiffness and strength increased with mineral content; and post-yield properties decreased with AGE concentration. In addition, cortical resistance to in vivo indentation (bone material strength index) was lower in patients with T2DM vs. age-matched non-diabetic controls, and this resistance decreased with worsening glycemic control. Recent studies on patients with T1DM and history of a prior fragility fracture found greater mineral content and concentrations of AGEs in iliac trabecular bone and correspondingly stiffer, harder bone at the nanosacle.SummaryRecent observational data showed greater AGE and mineral content in surgically retrieved bone from patients with T2DM vs. non-DM controls, consistent with reduced bone remodeling. Limited data on hu...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

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Conclusion: These findings suggested that increased serum levels of miR-154-5p and decreased OC levels may influence osteogenesis and proteinuria in T2DM and may identify novel targets for diagnosis and treatment of diabetic kidney disease and osteoporosis.
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Filomena Corbo1†, Giacomina Brunetti2*†, Pasquale Crupi3, Sara Bortolotti4, Giuseppina Storlino4, Laura Piacente5, Alessia Carocci1, Alessia Catalano1, Gualtiero Milani1, Graziana Colaianni4, Silvia Colucci2, Maria Grano4, Carlo Franchini1, Maria Lisa Clodoveo6, Gabriele D'Amato7 and Maria Felicia Faienza5 1Department of Pharmacy-Drug science, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy 2Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, Department of Basic and Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy 3CREA-VE, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics&ndas...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and osteoporosis is a condition in which bone density and quality become reduced. Both type 1 (TIDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are significantly linked with osteoporosis and fracture risk [1,2]. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), DM is estimated to affect at least 425 million people worldwide, and this number will rise to 629 million by the year 2045 [3]. Osteoporosis leads to more than 8.9 million fractures annually, resulting in an osteoporotic fracture every 3 second worldwide [4].
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsAlthough our results show an increased likelihood of osteoporosis among those with type 1 diabetes, future studies including a larger sample from a community population are needed. It may benefit diabetics, especially those with type 1, to initiate osteoporosis screening methods including evaluation of fracture risk, bone quality, and BMD measurements at multiple sites earlier than recommended.
Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionRestoration of vitamin D level may be a prerequisite for a normal correlation between bone and basal metabolism in T2DMPW. Lifestyle intervention for retention of vitamin D level is important even in summer, in T2DMPW.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
This article reviews data from clinical, in vivo, and in vitro studies on the use of silymarin, with a focus on the complications of diabetes, including nephropathy, neuropathy, healing delays, oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, and cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley &Sons, Ltd.
Source: Phytotherapy Research - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in diabetic patients is frequent. Studies based on fecal elastase-1 measurement give prevalence rates of 10‒30 % of severe and 22‒56 % of moderate EPI in type 1 and rates of 5‒46 % in type 2 diabetic patients. Nevertheless, not all patients report typical symptoms like diarrhea, steatorrhea and weight loss. For noninvasive testing the determination of fecal elastase-1 has the highest sensitivity and specificity. This test should be performed at least in all symptomatic patients. As differential diagnosis celiac disease (with a prevalence o...
Source: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift - Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tags: Wien Klin Wochenschr Source Type: research
The prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are increasing significantly worldwide. Whilst vascular complications of diabetes are well recognized, and account for principle mortality and morbidity from the condition, musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes are common and whilst not life threatening, are an important cause of morbidity, pain and disability. Joints affected by diabetes include peripheral joints and the axial skeleton. Charcot neuroarthropathy is an important cause of deformity and amputation associated with peripheral neuropathy. A number of fibrosing conditions of the hands and shoulder are recognized, ...
Source: QJM - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Reviews Source Type: research
Abstract The tumor necrosis factor-related cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) has been proposed as predictor of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus, and experimental blockade of RANKL resulted in a marked improvement of glucose tolerance. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to RANKL and prevents osteoclast formation, function and survival, leading to fracture risk reduction. The aim of our study was to investigate glucometabolic parameters, insulin resistance, and lipid profile in non-diabetic women receiving denosumab. Forty-eight women with postmenopausal ost...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that increases fracture risk, interferes with bone formation, and impairs fracture healing. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) both increase fracture risk and have several common features that affect the bone including hyperglycemia and increased advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and inflammation. These factors affect both osteoblasts and osteoclasts leading to increased osteoclasts and reduced numbers of osteoblasts and bone formation. In addition to fracture healing, T1DM an...
Source: Current Osteoporosis Reports - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
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