Left Atrial Enlargement Could Be Detected on Extended Computed Tomography Angiography —Reply

In Reply We agree with Popkirov that left atrial volume is a better marker of incident atrial fibrillation than atrial diameter; however, we did not have these data available at all of the sites participating in the New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial Versus ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (NAVIGATE-ESUS) trial. Recently completed and ongoing studies will help determine if our observation has a clinical role and may provide additional data on left atrial size and function. Once all of these data are available, guidelines committees will likely make recommendations regarding the threshold values of left atrial size (if present) for which anticoagulation therapy appears beneficial for patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source. Such recommendations would have to consider how to extrapolate the clinical trial results, allowing for the many different methods for assessing left size. The clinical use of the proposed, nongated computed tomography protocol is interesting, but should await additional studies to define its sensitivity and specificity compared with echocardiography, particularly for detecting other potential cardioembolic causes of stroke, such as patent foramen ovale and left ventricular thrombus.
Source: JAMA Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of reviewCryptogenic stroke describes a subset of ischemic stroke for which no cause can be found despite a structured investigation. There are a number of putative mechanisms of cryptogenic ischemic stroke including a covert structural cardiac lesion, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, hypercoagulable state or undiagnosed malignancy. Because many of these proposed mechanisms are embolic – and based on studies of thrombus history showing commonalities between thrombus composition between cardioembolic and cryptogenic strokes – the concept of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) (Hart et al....
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
AbstractFew data are available on age-related burden and characteristics of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) in the real world clinical practice. The aim of our study was to provide information about it. We retrospectively analyzed data of patients consecutively admitted to our Stroke Unit along 1  year (2017, November 1st–2018, October 31st). The etiology of ischemic stroke was defined at hospital discharge; ESUS was considered as a subset of cryptogenic stroke, and defined according to the 2014 international criteria. In the analyzed period, 306 patients, 52.3% females, mean age ±&thi...
Source: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
Conclusion An occult preexisting atrial fibrillation may lead to unnecessary percutaneous foramen ovale closure in a significant proportion of patients. A 6-month loop-recorder monitoring may improve the patient oriented decision-making.
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Tags: Research articles: Arrhythmias Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review will discuss the most frequent sources of cardiac embolism and the role of echocardiography in these different clinical settings, and, in addition, provide suggestions about the choice between transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE).Recent FindingsStroke is the third leading cause of death in industrial countries, and 15 –40% of all ischemic strokes are due to cardioembolism. TTE and TEE are cornerstones in the detection of cardioembolic sources and provide fundamental information about the embolic risk and most suitable treatment of these patients, improvin...
Source: Current Cardiology Reports - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Previous randomized controlled trials (RCT) failed to demonstrate benefits of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure (PFO-C) over medical therapy (MT) for secondary prevention of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Three recently published RCTs, however, turned out positive for PFO-C and warrant an updated meta-analysis. METHODS: Data from all available RCTs on PFO-C vs. MT for secondary prevention of cryptogenic ischemic stroke up until October 2017 were abstracted and analyzed in a comprehensive meta-analysis. Clinical efficacy outcomes were recurrent stroke, recurrent TIA, and their combination; ...
Source: Clin Med Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Clin Res Cardiol Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundPrevious randomized controlled trials (RCT) failed to demonstrate benefits of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure (PFO-C) over medical therapy (MT) for secondary prevention of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Three recently published RCTs, however, turned out positive for PFO-C and warrant an updated meta-analysis.MethodsData from all available RCTs on PFO-C vs. MT for secondary prevention of cryptogenic ischemic stroke up until October 2017 were abstracted and analyzed in a comprehensive meta-analysis. Clinical efficacy outcomes were recurrent stroke, recurrent TIA, and their combination; safety outcomes were...
Source: Clinical Research in Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
>>>Cardiology MCQs from Cardiophile MD Paperback,  Free Look Inside Cardiovascular causes of stroke Atrial fibrillation / flutter Patent foramen ovale (PFO) with right to left shunt or atrial septal aneurysm Cardiomyopathy Aortic arch atheroma Valvular heart disease with intracardiac thrombi or vegetations Atrial myxoma and fibroelastoma Mural thrombus in myocardial infarction Two recent trials (Gore REDUCE and CLOSE) [1,2] and long term outcome results of RESPECT trial [3] provide clear evidence for PFO closure for stroke prevention in those below 60 years with high risk – PFO. High ris...
Source: Cardiophile MD - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: General Cardiology Source Type: blogs
(This post introduces my latest column on TheHeart.org | Medscape Cardiology. It’s about stroke in young people.)  *** We define stroke as the death of brain cells. The typical cause is a blocked blood vessel in the brain. Stroke usually occurs in older people who have established blood vessel disease. Stroke is bad; it may be the worst outcome in all of medicine. That’s because stroke can permanently remove basic functions of being human, things such as speech, thought, personality, movement, swallowing, and many others. Stroke is not supposed to happen in young people. But sometimes it does. And in some ...
Source: Dr John M - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
Conclusions:Approximately 1 in 6 patients who undergo percutaneous transcatheter closure of PFO after stroke or transient ischemic attack experience a serious complication or death within 5 years.Study Supported by:Dr. Gialdini is supported by the Feil Family Foundation.Dr. Navi is supported by NIH grant K23NS091395 and the Florence Gould Endowment for Discovery in Stroke.Dr. Iadecola is supported by NIH grants R37NS089323-02, R01NS034179-21, R01NS037853-19, and R01 NS073666-04.Dr. Kamel is supported by NIH grants K23NS082367 and R01NS097443 as well as the Michael Goldberg Research Fund.Disclosure: Dr. Merkler has nothing ...
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Cerebrovascular Disease and Interventional Neurology: Stroke Prevention and Translation Source Type: research
Background and Purpose— We hypothesized that formation of left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombi of unknown origin is associated with altered fibrin clot properties and blood hypercoagulability. Methods— In a case–control study, we investigated 32 patients with a history of LAA thrombus after successful anticoagulant treatment versus 32 control subjects matched for age, sex, and diabetes mellitus. All subjects had previous ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or migraine associated with patent foramen ovale. Patients with documented atrial fibrillation were excluded. We determined plasma fibrin clot ...
Source: Stroke - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Ischemic Stroke Clinical Sciences Source Type: research
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