Concomitant cerebral aspergillosis and mucormycosis in an immunocompetent woman treated with corticosteroids

We present the case of an immunocompetent 55-year-old woman, treated with corticosteroids, developing a cerebral fungal infection with autoptic ascertainment of aspergillosis and mucormycosis. This is the first report of cerebral co-infection by mucorales and aspergillus in an immunocompetent host. A possible explanation is that corticosteroids, even if taken for a short time, led to a transient lowering of immune function and contributed to negative outcome.
Source: Journal of NeuroVirology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Current suboptimal treatment options of invasive fungal infections and emerging resistance of the corresponding pathogens urge the need for alternative therapy strategies and require the identification of novel antifungal targets. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common airborne opportunistic mold pathogen causing invasive and often fatal disease. Establishing a novel in vivo conditional gene expression system, we demonstrate that downregulation of the class 1 lysine deacetylase (KDAC) RpdA leads to avirulence of A. fumigatus in a murine model for pulmonary aspergillosis. The xylP promoter used has previously been shown t...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our results suggest high prevalence of positivity to GM in subjects with IPF. Moreover, these subjects showed a slight improvement in the functional trend with antifungal therapy. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of Aspergillus infection in IPF pathogenesis and progression.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias Source Type: research
Conclusion: In patients with suspicion of pulmonary Aspergillosis, BAL galactomannan level was found to be a better marker than fungal smear/culture. While microbiological and histopathological evidences are gold standard to diagnose fungal infections, our study shows that in patients with negative fungal smear or culture, BAL Galactomannan can be conclusive for diagnosis.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Respiratory infections Source Type: research
Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2019; 40: 540-547 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1696968Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a fungal infection that is the hallmark of severe cellular or complex immune alterations. Evidence that IPA can occur in nonimmunocompromised hosts is increasing. Actually, up to 1% of general intensive care unit (ICU) patients present positive samples with Aspergillus spp. Both colonization and invasive disease are associated with poor outcome. Unexpected IPA has also been reported in approximately 1% of critically ill patients who underwent postmortem biopsies. In nonimmunocompromised patients with acute resp...
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Abstract Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is an environmental fungus and a human pathogen. Neutrophils are critical effector cells during the fungal infections, and neutropenia is a risk factor for the development of pulmonary aspergillosis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are released by neutrophils in response to A. fumigatus and inhibit the conidial germination. In this work, we observed that the receptors TLR2, TLR4, and Dectin-1 were dispensable for the A. fumigatus induced NET release. In contrast CD11b/CD18 was critical for the NET release in response to A. fumigatus conidia, and this required the...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research
Abstract The cell wall (CW) and plasma membrane are fundamental structures that define cell shape and support different cellular functions. In pathogenic fungi, such as Aspegillus fumigatus, they not only play structural roles but also are important for virulence and immune recognition. Both the CW and the plasma membrane remain as attractive drug targets to treat fungal infections, such as the Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis (IPA), a disease associated with high morbimortality in immunocompromised individuals. The low efficiency of echinocandins that target the fungal CW biosynthesis, the occurrence of environme...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection that mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients. Here, we compared the novel Aspergillus-specific galactomannoprotein (GP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Euroimmun Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG) to the established Platelia Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) ELISA (Bio-Rad Laboratories) for the detection of IA. A total of 267 serum samples from 45 cases of proven and 4 episodes of probable IA (according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Inf...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Mycology Source Type: research
l C Abstract Invasive aspergillosis caused by intrinsically resistant non-fumigatus Aspergillus species displays a poor outcome in immunocompromised patients. The polyene antifungal amphotericin B (AmB) remains to be "gold standard" in the treatment of invasive fungal infections. Aspergillus terreus is innately resistant to AmB, in vivo and in vitro. Till now, the exact mode of action in polyene resistance is not well understood. This review highlights the underlying molecular basis of AmB resistance in A. terreus, displaying data obtained from AmB susceptible A. terreus and AmB resistant A. terreus stra...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe incidence of invasive aspergillosis has increased substantially over the past few decades, accompanied by a change in susceptibility patterns ofAspergillus fumigatus with increasing resistance observed against triazole antifungals, including voriconazole and isavuconazole, the most commonly used antifungal agents for the disease. Culture-based methods for determining triazole resistance are still the gold standard but are time consuming and lack sensitivity. We sought to provide an update on non-culture-based methods for detecting resistance patterns toAspergillus.Recent FindingsNew molecular-b...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
kar A Abstract Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib has become a leading therapy against chronic lymphoid leukemia. Recently, ibrutinib has been associated with the occurrence of invasive fungal infections, in particular invasive aspergillosis. The mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility to fungal infections associated with ibrutinib exposure are currently unknown. Innate immunity, in particular polymorphonuclear neutrophils, represents the cornerstone of anti-Aspergillus immunity however the potential impact of ibrutinib on neutrophils has been little studied. Our study investigated the respons...
Source: Haematologica - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Haematologica Source Type: research
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