Omentin-1 attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced U937 macrophages activation by inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NF- κB signaling.

In this study, we found that omentin-1 inhibited LPS-induced expression of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Furthermore, omentin-1 inhibited activation of the NF-κB pathway by suppressing both nuclear p65 accumulation and transfected NFκB promoter activity. Importantly, omentin-1 increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2. Our findings demonstrate that omentin-1 exerts anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced macrophages and has potential implication in the treatment of inflammation-associated diseases. PMID: 31706880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

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Consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes; both of these diseases are also associated with systemic inflammation, similar to HIV infection. A HFD induces intestinal dysbiosis and impairs liver function and coagulation, with a potential negative impact on HIV/SIV pathogenesis. We administered a HFD rich in saturated fats and cholesterol to nonpathogenic (African green monkeys) and pathogenic (pigtailed macaques) SIV hosts. The HFD had a negative impact on SIV disease progression in both species. Thus, increased cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA occurred in the HFD-receiving nonhuman primates, i...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, the enhanced mice live somewhat longer than their unmodified peers, though not as much longer as is the case for the application of telomerase gene therapy. The mice do also exhibit reduced cancer risk, however. The scientists here class telomere shortening as a cause of aging, which is not a point universally agreed upon. Reductions in average telomere length in tissues looks much more like a downstream consequence of reduced stem cell activity than an independent mechanism. Researchers obtain the first mice born with hyper-long telomeres and show that it is possible to extend life without any geneti...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsWe conclude that the β-adrenergic pathway is still functionally intact upon the inhibition of PI3Kα, showing that the activation of downstream insulin effectors is not required for the acute effects of β-adrenoceptor agonists on glucose homeostasis or thermogenesis.Graphical abstract
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe conclude that the β-adrenergic pathway is still functionally intact upon the inhibition of PI3Kα, showing that the activation of downstream insulin effectors is not required for the acute effects of β-adrenoceptor agonists on glucose homeostasis or thermogenesis.
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Albiflorin (AF) is a small molecule (MW 481) isolated from Paeoniae radix, a plant used as a remedy for various conditions with pathogenesis shared by metabolic diseases. Reported here is our characterization of its therapeutic profiles in three mouse models with distinctive pathological features of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our results firstly showed that AF alleviated high fat (HF) induced obesity and associated glucose intolerance, suggesting its therapeutic efficacy for MetS. In the type 2 diabetes (T2D) model induced by a combination of HF and low doses of streptozotocin, AF lowered hyperglycaemia and improved insuli...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
We examined human lung tissue from COPD patients and normal control subjects, and found a substantial increase in p16-expressing alveolar cells in COPD patients. Using a transgenic mouse deficient for p16, we demonstrated that lungs of mice lacking p16 were structurally and functionally resistant to CS-induced emphysema due to activation of IGF1/Akt regenerative and protective signaling. Fat Tissue Surrounds Skeletal Muscle to Accelerate Atrophy in Aging and Obesity https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/09/fat-tissue-surrounds-skeletal-muscle-to-accelerate-atrophy-in-aging-and-obesity/ Researchers her...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we aimed at evaluation the efficacy of the FX in a model of sepsis mouse. Methods: FX was successfully isolated from Conticribra weissflogii ND-8 for the first time. The FX was identified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Animals were randomly divided into 9 groups, including Sham group (mouse received an intraperitoneal injection of normal saline 1.0 mL/kg), FX-treated (0.1–10.0 mg/kg), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated (20 mg/kg), FX+LPS-treated (0.1–10.0 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
by Teresa Buenaventura, Stavroula Bitsi, William E. Laughlin, Thomas Burgoyne, Zekun Lyu, Affiong I. Oqua, Hannah Norman, Emma R. McGlone, Andrey S. Klymchenko, Ivan R. Corr êa Jr, Abigail Walker, Asuka Inoue, Aylin Hanyaloglu, Jak Grimes, Zsombor Koszegi, Davide Calebiro, Guy A. Rutter, Stephen R. Bloom, Ben Jones, Alejandra Tomas The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), a key pharmacological target in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, undergoes rapid endocytosis after stimulation by endogenous and therapeutic agonists. We have previously highlighted the relevance of this process in fine-tuning GLP-1R respon...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Faria AMC Abstract Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota have been associated with development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), but little is known about changes in intestinal homeostasis that contribute to disease pathogenesis. Here, we analyzed oral tolerance induction, components of the intestinal barrier, fecal microbiota, and immune cell phenotypes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice during disease progression compared to non-obese diabetes resistant (NOR) mice. NOD mice failed to develop oral tolerance and had defective protective/regulatory mechanisms in the intestinal mucosa, including de...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of DiseaseAuthor(s): Magdalena Jazurek-Ciesiolka, Justyna Janikiewicz, Pawel Dobrzyn, Anna Dziewulska, Kamil Kozinski, Agnieszka DobrzynAbstractIn the setting of metabolic overload, chronic elevations of free fatty acids in blood and tissues are associated with pancreatic β-cell lipotoxicity and failure. Ultimately, obesity combined with insulin resistance increases the dysfunctional demand of β-cells and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) is a potent transcriptional...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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