T cell immune response within B-cell follicles.

T cell immune response within B-cell follicles. Adv Immunol. 2019;144:155-171 Authors: Huang Q, Xu L, Ye L Abstract B-cell follicle represents a functionally dynamic microstructure within second lymphoid tissues, predominantly consisting of B cells, follicular T cells and DCs. Through intimate interactions with cognate B cells, follicular helper T cells (Tfh) initiate and facilitate germinal center (GC) reactions by providing signals required for producing high-affinity antibodies, as well as for the generation of long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. Concomitantly, germinal center reaction needs to be fine controlled to avoid autoimmunity or B-cell malignancies. Among immune cells residing in follicles, follicular regulatory T cells (Tfr), converted from naïve Treg cells, are specifically assigned to repress excessive GC responses by suppressing Tfh and GC B cells within GC structure. Hence, through Yin and Yang (positive and negative) regulation of GC reaction, Tfh cells play concert with Tfr cells in maintaining immune homeostasis. Besides CD4+ T cells, a small portion of CXCR5 expressing CD8+ T cells, regarded as follicular cytotoxic T cells (Tfc), could migrate into B cell follicles during chronic viral infection and several types of cancers, and this population exhibit lower level of exhaustion than its CXCR5- counterparts. Besides, Tfc cells demonstrate a stem-cell like phenotype during chronic infection which could f...
Source: Advances in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Adv Immunol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): Ryan N. Serio, Lorraine J. GudasAbstractEthanol (EtOH) is a recreationally ingested compound that is both teratogenic and carcinogenic in humans. Because of its abundant consumption worldwide and the vital role of stem cells in the formation of birth defects and cancers, delineating the effects of EtOH on stem cell function is currently an active and urgent pursuit of scientific investigation to explicate some of the mechanisms contributing to EtOH toxicity. Stem cells represent a primordial, undifferentiated phase of devel...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
ConclusionsOral complications in HSCT survivors are common and may include GVHD, dry mouth, and taste changes. All patients must be screened prior to HSCT and followed up by a dentist periodically to assess the oral health status and modify treatment, if needed.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, Volume 129, Issue 1Author(s): LEONARDO AMARAL DOS REIS, RENATA LUCENA MARKMAN, LIANA PRETTO WEBBER, PABLO AGUSTIN VARGAS, JACKS JORGE, CRISTIANE HELENA SQUARIZE, ROGERIO CASTILHOMucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) are the most common malignancy of the salivary glands. Dysfunctional clock signaling is observed in a variety of pathologic conditions. Members of the clock gene family are upregulated in tumor cells. We explored the role of the mTOR signaling pathway, commonly found upregulated in tumors including in MEC, oral squam...
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Conclusions: The 2 OSCC cell lines presented distinct patterns of cancer stem cells surface markers. Further experiments will be needed to better characterize the CSCs populations present in SCC9 and SCC9 ZsGreen LN1 cell lines. (FAPESP 14/20832-3).
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major late complication in patients treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is defined as a multisystem alloimmune and autoimmunelike disorder characterized by immune dysregulation, immune deficiency, impaired end-organ function, and decreased survival. Chronic GVHD resembles both clinically and histologically, many autoimmune disorders and other immunologic diseases. The oral cavity is the second most commonly involved organ system, behind skin involvement and can present as mucosal erythema, lichenoid lesions, ulcerated mucosa, and leukoplakia lesion...
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by bone marrow failure, malformations, and chromosome fragility. Patients who reach adulthood are more likely to develop solid tumors, such as oral squamous cell carcinoma. The survival rate of patients with FA is low, since they present with hematologic complications, septicemia, or malignant neoplasias. The aim of this study is to report 2 cases of female patients with FA at 20 and 34 years of age, both of whom underwent transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells 8 and 17 years ago, respectively, and who developed oral lesions on the tongue and gin...
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) comprise subpopulation of tumor cells associated with cancer initiation, progression, and treatment failures found in several malignancies, including oral squamous cells carcinoma (OSCC). Currently, among the methods employed for detection and isolation of CSCs the most used is flow cytometry immunophenotyping. The expression of surface markers for CSCs in SCC-9 cells, derived from tongue OSCC, has not been described in the literature.Objective: To identify and compare the expression of cell surface markers associate to CSCs in the SCC9 ZsGreen and its metastatic derivative SCC9 ZsGreen LN1 cells.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
Mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) are the most common malignancy of the salivary glands. Dysfunctional clock signaling is observed in a variety of pathologic conditions. Members of the clock gene family are upregulated in tumor cells. We explored the role of the mTOR signaling pathway, commonly found upregulated in tumors including in MEC, oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), and its population of cancer stem cells (CSC). We also explored the potential implication on the disruption of the mTOR signaling on the expression the clock gene family member BMAL1 in tumor behavior using the specific mTOR inhibitor rapamycin.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
This study shows that CA are released from periventricular and subpial regions to the cerebrospinal fluid and are present in the cervical lymph nodes, into which cerebrospinal fluid drains through the meningeal lymphatic system. We also show that CA can be phagocytosed by macrophages. We conclude that CA can act as containers that remove waste products from the brain and may be involved in a mechanism that cleans the brain. Moreover, we postulate that CA may contribute in some autoimmune brain diseases, exporting brain substances that interact with the immune system, and hypothesize that CA may contain brain markers that m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS Itraconazole altered the stemness characteristics of A549 and NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells by suppressing Wnt signaling but did not affect cell viability. PMID: 31833479 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
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