TWiV 573: Inventing viruses

William Summers joins the TWiV team to discuss some virology history, including the ever-changing concept of 'virus' and the contribution of phage research to the study of animal viruses. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Rich Condit Guest: William Summers Subscribe (free): iTunes, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Bill’s ASV 2019 talk (PPT download) Inventing viruses (Ann Rev Virol) Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Weekly Science Picks Alan - Restoration of Western Flyer Rich - Purification of phage T7 RNA polymerase Dickson - The Galaxy is Not Flat Bill - Efficacy of tetravalent dengue vaccine Vincent - Blowout by Rachel Maddow Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees. Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv
Source: This Week in Virology - MP3 Edition - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: podcasts

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(Cornell University) In a new paper in Science Signaling, researchers at the University of Hyderabad in India and the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine show that a plant-based compound called halofuginone improves the immune response to a potential vaccine against dengue virus.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
ra DF Abstract Dengue, considered the most important arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans, is transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and caused by one of the four distinct serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4). Infection with one of the four serotypes provides lifelong homotypic immunity. However, immunity against the heterologous serotypes is transient. As a consequence, secondary infection may lead to severer manifestations due to cross-reactivity of antibodies and T-cells. Over 500,000 people are hospitalized every year and around 2,5 million, living in endemic areas, are...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
More than 1,500 deaths and 2,500 people sickened – that’s the recent account of the ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) raging in the country since last August, and recently declared a public health emergency of international concern. Experts say efforts to contain the virus are hindered by biological, public health, political, and cultural issues, but we looked around what digital health technologies could do to mitigate the spread and the devastation of the infectious disease. The Spaghetti-like virus… The lethal Ebola virus first appeared in 1976 around a river in Congo &nda...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine Africa AI artificial intelligence Congo digital digital health digital maps disease disease outbreak ebola epidemic Innovation technology Source Type: blogs
Dengue and Zika viruses are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses responsible for major public health problems in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The genomes of both, dengue and zika viruses encodes ten genes that are translated into 3 structural proteins (C, prM and E) and 7 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5). The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a highly conserved glycoprotein of approximately 48-50 KDa. In infected cells, NS1 is found as a homodimer associated with intracellular membranes and replication complexes, serving as a scaffolding protein in virus replication and morp...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
The importance of the cellular immune response against DENV has been increasingly highlighted in the past few years, in particular for vaccine development. We have previously constructed two plasmids, pE1D2 and pcTPANS1, encoding the envelope (E) ectodomain (domains I, II and III) and the non-structural 1 (NS1) protein of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2), respectively. In the present work, we analyzed the induction of the cellular response in mice immunized with these DNA vaccines and identified the immunogenic peptides. Vaccinated BALB/c mice became protected against a lethal challenge of DENV2. Depletion of CD4+ cells in ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent MedicineAuthor(s): Tracy Evans-GilbertAbstractChikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV), and Dengue viruses (DENV) exhibit similar ecological, evolutionary, and epidemiological patterns but have different pathophysiological mechanisms of disease manifestations. Clinical presentations overlap and can be asymptomatic. Differences occur in the severity of clinical presentations with the highest mortality in the general population attributed to DENV and neurological morbidity due to ZIKV. ZIKV and DENV infections can cause fetal los...
Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Conclusion In future, high-quality randomised controlled trial (RCT), vitro and animal model studies are required to support the efficacy of homoeopathic therapeutics. [...] Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd. Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text
Source: Homoeopathic Links - Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of a...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Lassa fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic illness caused by Lassa virus (LASV), which is endemic throughout much of West Africa. The virus primarily circulates in the Mastomys natalensis reservoir and is transmitted to humans through contact with infectious rodents or their secretions; human-to-human transmission is documented as well. With the exception of Dengue fever, LASV has the highest human impact of any haemorrhagic fever virus. On-going outbreaks in Nigeria have resulted in unprecedented mortality. Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has listed LASV as a high priority pathogen for ...
Source: Immunology Letters - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research
We describe the unexpected binding of S-layer to cells devoid of DC-SIGN but also confirm that the presence of DC-SIGN was essential for S-layer’s antiviral activity. S-layer protein exerted its antiviral effect with different kinetics than mannan, a known viral inhibitor that also acts on DC-SIGN (Yu et al., 2017). Together our results suggest that inhibition of viral entry by S-layer occurs via a novel S-layer/DC-SIGN interaction. Materials and Methods Isolation of S-Layer Proteins S-layer proteins were extracted from overnight cultures of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 cells grown in MRS medium at 37°C by using 6...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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