Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 1047: Comparative Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of the H7N9 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus and the H7N9 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 1047: Comparative Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of the H7N9 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus and the H7N9 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11111047 Authors: Hao Yu Kunpeng Zhang Xumeng Ye Wenqing Wang Wenbo Wu Xia Wang Yun Guan Zhuoliang He Yong Wang Peirong Jiao There were five outbreaks of H7N9 influenza virus in humans in China since it emerged in 2013, infecting >1000 people. The H7N9 low pathogenic influenza virus was inserted into four amino acids in the HA protein cleavage site to mutate into the H7N9 highly pathogenic virus. This emerging virus caused 15 outbreaks in chickens from the end of 2016 to date. Two H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) strains, A/chicken/Guangdong/A46/2013 (LPAIV) and A/chicken/Guangdong/Q29/2017 (HPAIV), were selected to compare the pathogenicity and transmissibility between H7N9 LPAIVs and HPAIVs in chickens. We inoculated 3- to 4-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens with 6 log10EID50/0.1 mL viruses via the ocular-nasal route and co-housed four chickens in each group. The inoculated chicken mortality rate in the A46 and Q29 groups was 1/5 and 5/5, respectively. Q29 virus replication was more efficient compared to the A46 virus in inoculated chickens. Infected chickens initiated viral shedding to naïve contact chickens through respiratory and digestive routes. Both viruses transmitted between chickens by naïve c...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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This study provides further insight into the ways that lymphocytes maturate and traffic in response to H7N9 infection in the ferret model.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Background: On January 9th, 2017 a community health worker notified of increased number of deaths in backyard poultry in a pig rearing village of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh. We investigated the reported morbidity and mortality among backyard poultry in Rajshahi to confirm there was an ongoing outbreak of avian influenza, determine the etiology, and identify possible associated illnesses in humans and pigs.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: 0542 Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2020Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Claire Hautefeuille, Billal Azzouguen, Simon Mouchel, Gwenaëlle Dauphin, Marisa Peyre
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
(Penn State) Small-scale poultry farmers in Vietnam tend to respond to viral outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) by rapidly selling their birds as a way to avoid financial loss, according to a new study by an international team of researchers. As these birds are commingled with other birds in markets and trading networks, this practice may increase the likelihood of widespread disease transmission.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Over the past few years, Professor Zhang Yongzhen has made it his business to sequence thousands of previously unknown viruses. But he knew straight away that this one was particularly nasty. It was about 1:30 p.m. on Jan. 3 that a metal box arrived at the drab, beige buildings that house the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. Inside was a test tube packed in dry ice that contained swabs from a patient suffering from a peculiar pneumonia sweeping China’s central city of Wuhan. But little did Zhang know that that box would also unleash a vicious squall of blame and geopolitical acrimony worthy of Pandora herself....
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 overnight Source Type: news
Over the past few years, Professor Zhang Yongzhen has made it his business to sequence thousands of previously unknown viruses. But he knew straight away that this one was particularly nasty. It was about 1:30 p.m. on Jan. 3 that a metal box arrived at the drab, beige buildings that house the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. Inside was a test tube packed in dry ice that contained swabs from a patient suffering from a peculiar pneumonia sweeping China’s central city of Wuhan. But little did Zhang know that that box would also unleash a vicious squall of blame and geopolitical acrimony worthy of Pandora herself....
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 overnight Source Type: news
Avian influenza outbreaks have been occurring on smallholder poultry farms in Asia for two decades. Farmer responses to these outbreaks can slow down or accelerate virus transmission. We used a longitudinal survey of 53 small-scale chicken farms in southern Vietnam to investigate the impact of outbreaks with disease-induced mortality on harvest rate, vaccination, and disinfection behaviors. We found that in small broiler flocks ( ≤16 birds/flock) the estimated probability of harvest was 56% higher when an outbreak occurred, and 214% higher if an outbreak with sudden deaths occurred in the same month. Vaccination and dis...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Epidemiology and Global Health Microbiology and Infectious Disease Source Type: research
oves Wendy S. Barclay Jill Banks Ian H. Brown Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) often result in the infection of millions of poultry, causing up to 100% mortality. HPAIV has been shown to emerge from low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in field outbreaks. Direct evidence for the emergence of H7N7 HPAIV from a LPAIV precursor with a rare di-basic cleavage site (DBCS) was identified in the UK in 2008. The DBCS contained an additional basic amino acid compared to commonly circulating LPAIVs that harbor a single-basic amino acid at the cleavage site (SBCS). Using reverse genetic...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Authors: Morton MJ, Kirsch TD, Rothman RE, Byerly MM, Hsieh YH, McManus JG, Kelen GD Abstract STUDY OBJECTIVES: To quantify the readiness of individual academic emergency departments (EDs) in the United States for an outbreak of pandemic influenza. Methods, design, and setting: Cross-sectional assessment of influenza pandemic preparedness level of EDs in the United States via survey of medical directors and department chairs from the 135 academic emergency medicine departments in the United States. Preparedness assessed using a novel score of 15 critical preparedness indicators. Data analysis consisted of summary s...
Source: American Journal of Disaster Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Am J Disaster Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: There appear to be significant gaps in pandemic influenza and other infectious disease outbreak planning among the hospitals where ACEP DMS members work. This may reflect a broader underlying inadequacy of preparedness measures. PMID: 32803746 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Disaster Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Am J Disaster Med Source Type: research
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