Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 1047: Comparative Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of the H7N9 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus and the H7N9 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 1047: Comparative Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of the H7N9 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus and the H7N9 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11111047 Authors: Hao Yu Kunpeng Zhang Xumeng Ye Wenqing Wang Wenbo Wu Xia Wang Yun Guan Zhuoliang He Yong Wang Peirong Jiao There were five outbreaks of H7N9 influenza virus in humans in China since it emerged in 2013, infecting >1000 people. The H7N9 low pathogenic influenza virus was inserted into four amino acids in the HA protein cleavage site to mutate into the H7N9 highly pathogenic virus. This emerging virus caused 15 outbreaks in chickens from the end of 2016 to date. Two H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) strains, A/chicken/Guangdong/A46/2013 (LPAIV) and A/chicken/Guangdong/Q29/2017 (HPAIV), were selected to compare the pathogenicity and transmissibility between H7N9 LPAIVs and HPAIVs in chickens. We inoculated 3- to 4-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens with 6 log10EID50/0.1 mL viruses via the ocular-nasal route and co-housed four chickens in each group. The inoculated chicken mortality rate in the A46 and Q29 groups was 1/5 and 5/5, respectively. Q29 virus replication was more efficient compared to the A46 virus in inoculated chickens. Infected chickens initiated viral shedding to naïve contact chickens through respiratory and digestive routes. Both viruses transmitted between chickens by naïve c...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Carla Correia-Gomes, Nick SparksAbstractBackyard poultry producers have been associated with outbreaks of exotic (e.g. avian influenza) and endemic (e.g. Salmonella) disease all over the world. Currently in the UK the registration of small flocks (less than 50 birds) with local authorities is voluntary therefore there is not an accurate record of how many keepers and birds there are or where they are located. This lack of information (e.g. how many birds they keep, what type of birds, biosecurity measures they implement, etc....
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
AbstractIn the 2014 –2015 Eurasian lineage clade 2.3.4.4A H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak in the U.S., backyard flocks with minor gallinaceous poultry and large commercial poultry (chickens and turkeys) operations were affected. The pathogenesis of the first H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade 2.3.4. 4A HPAI U.S. isolates was investigated in six gallinaceous species: chickens, Japanese quail, Bobwhite quail, Pearl guinea fowl, Chukar partridges, and Ring-necked pheasants. Both viruses caused 80–100% mortality in all species, except for H5N2 virus that caused 60% mortality in chickens. The surv ...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
This article reviews the risk factors of nosocomial influenza outbreaks and discusses clinical, diagnostic, and treatment aspects of seasonal and avian influenza to facilitate hospital preparations for future influenza outbreaks. Literature search was conducted through PubMed of relevant peer-reviewed full papers in English journals with inclusion of relevant publications by the WHO and US CDC. Expert opinion: Accurate and rapid identification of an influenza outbreak is important to facilitate patient care and prevent nosocomial transmission. Timely treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) for adults hospitalized wi...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research
IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 4139: Avian Influenza—Factors Affecting Consumers’ Purchase Intentions toward Poultry Products International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph16214139 Authors: Xiaowei Wen Sangluo Sun Lin Li Qinying He Fu-Sheng Tsai Recently, continuing outbreaks of avian influenza in China have not only caused great loss to the agricultural sector but also brought fear and distrust to consumers, seriously undermining consumer confidence in chicken products. We investigated consumers’ purchase intentions during avian influenza outbreaks by ex...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, we identified four amantadine-resistant M2 mutants among avian and human influenza A H5N1 strains circulating between 2002 to 2019: the single S31N and V27A mutants, and the S31N/L26I and S31N/V27A double mutants. Herein, utilizing two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) assays, we screened a panel of structurally diverse M2 inhibitors against these single and double mutant channels. Three compounds 6, 7, and 15 were found to significantly block all three M2 mutants: M2-S31N, M2-S31N/L26I, and M2-S31N/V27A. Using recombinant viruses generated from reverse genetics, we further showed that these compounds also inhi...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharm Sci Source Type: research
Abstract The occurrence of severe outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Korea led to establishment of a national antigen bank for emergency preparedness. Here, we developed five vaccines for this bank (clade 2.3.2.1C, clade 2.3.4.4A, B, C, and D) by reverse genetics, inactivated them with formalin, and evaluated the protective efficacy and potency of serial dilutions against lethal homologous challenge in specific-pathogen-free chickens. After vaccination with one dose, each vaccine resulted in 100% survival, with no clinical symptoms, or lack of detectable virus shedding, and high levels of pre-challe...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
My sister-in-law, Vicki Gregory, who has died of cancer aged 51, was an international expert in influenza surveillance and research.As a stalwart of theWorldwide Influenza Centre at theFrancis Crick Institute in London, Vicki was held in high regard by colleagues around the globe. With her wealth of knowledge and experience, notably during bird flu outbreaks, she collaborated with many of the laboratories of theWorld Health Organization (WHO)’s influenza response system.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Medical research Flu Science Society Vaccines and immunisation Punk Source Type: news
In 2017 –2018, a new highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) variant appeared in poultry and wild birds in Asian and European countries and caused multiple outbreaks. These variant strains are differ...
Source: Virology Journal - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
A recent study in this journal compared codon usage among NA subtypes (N1, N2, N6, and N8)  of H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIVs) and suggested that codon usage in N1 subtype is better adapted to its host than the epidemic NA subtypes (N6 and N8), which had fewer number of human cases compared to the N1 subtype.1 To date, there are 18 known HA subtypes (H1-H18) and 11 known NA subtypes (N1-N11)2. However, only N1 and N2 subtypes have been reported to cause pandemics (H1N1 for the 1918 and 2009 pandemics; H2N2 for the 1957 pandemic; and H3N2 for the 1968 pandemic) or seasonal outbreaks in humans3.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
NLM Informatics and Data Science Lecture Series Genomics-informed surveillance is now recognized as an important extension to the monitoring of rapidly evolving pathogens. Next generation sequencing has the ability to produce large amounts of data for tracking viruses of public health importance. Biomedical informatics approaches are able to facilitate the translation of these data into information for public health surveillance. Thus, epidemiologists can identify new outbreaks or monitor the course of a known epidemic by leveraging pathogen sequences (and corresponding metadata) generated from the clinical specimens of si...
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: General Medicine Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video
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