Temporal lobe surgery and memory: Lessons, risks, and opportunities

Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Epilepsy &BehaviorAuthor(s): Kristie Bauman, Orrin Devinsky, Anli A. LiuAbstractCareful study of the clinical outcomes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery has greatly advanced our knowledge of the neuroanatomy of human memory. After early cases resulted in profound amnesia, the critical role of the hippocampus and associated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures to declarative memory became evident. Surgical approaches quickly changed to become unilateral and later, to be more precise, potentially reducing cognitive morbidity. Neuropsychological studies following unilateral temporal lobe resection (TLR) have challenged early models, which simplified the lateralization of verbal and visual memory function. Diagnostic tests, including intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (WADA), structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional neuroimaging (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), can more accurately lateralize and localize epileptogenic cortex and predict memory outcomes from surgery. Longitudinal studies have shown that memory may even improve in seizure-free patients. From 70 years of experience with epilepsy surgery, we now have a richer understanding of the clinical, neuroimaging, and surgical predictors of memory decline—and improvement—after TLR."Special Issue: Epilepsy &Behavior's 20th Anniver...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Patients with FMD reported more sensations falling in the detachment facet of dissociation, while patients with PNES in the compartmentalization one. We hypothesized that both facets of dissociation might be important pathophysiological processes for PNES and FMD and that different instruments (self-report clinical scales vs experimental tasks) might be able to detect different facets in different populations because they assess, respectively, "trait" and "state" dissociation. PMID: 32861024 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
This study was to explore clinical characteristics of cognitive impairment and one year outcome in patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical informationand cognitive impairment features of 21 patients admitted to the Nanjing Brain Hospital who had been diagnosed with anti-LGI1encephalitis from 2016 to 2019. At the time of onsetof hospitalizationand one year after discharge, the cognitive functions in these patients were assessed using two cognitive screening tools - Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Basic (MoCA-B). Results: Among the 21 p...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2020Source: SeizureAuthor(s): Benjamin Cretin, Mathias Bilger, Nathalie Philippi, Frederic Blanc
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This study was carried out to evaluate the potential neuroprotection effect of the aqueous root bark extract of Daniellia oliveri against diazepam-induced amnesia in mice. Thirty-six adult male mice were distributed into six groups: the three test groups received Daniellia oliveri root bark extract (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg), the normal control group received distilled water (10 ml/kg), a positive control group received piracetam (150 mg/kg), and the negative control received diazepam (2.5 mg/kg). Learning and memory were evaluated using the radial arm maze and the T-maze. Biomarkers of oxidative...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
We present the case of a 23-year-old male epilepsy patient, BM, with developmental amnesia due to perinatal cerebral hypoxia. The patient was examined with neuroimaging and neuropsychological methods and compared to IQ-matched patients with epilepsy to control for effects of epilepsy. In addition, we used a test battery that evaluates emotion recognition and theory of mind to study his social cognition abilities. Structural high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral hippocampal atrophy. The comparison to controls showed that, in addition to the well-documented memory disorders in developmental amnesia, BM ...
Source: Neurocase - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our findings suggest a putative cerebrovascular background of transient global amnesia. No evidence has been provided for the association between TGA and epilepsy or migraine. Among comorbidities, autoimmune thyroiditis deserves further investigation with regard to its potential links with TGA.
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion RESLES manifests as variety of symptoms with less specificity and precipitating factors. Paroxysmal blurred vision may be a relatively specific symptom of RESLES. Levetiracetam, carbamazepine or valproate could be the cause of RESLES, exposure to the rabies vaccine could be another predisposing factors for RESLES as well. RESLES type 1 was therefore found to be highly "reversible" with an excellent prognosis. PMID: 32611957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
OBJECTIVE: To estimate national frequency of posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and assess injury severity (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and posttraumatic amnesia (PTA)) as prognostic factors for PTE. METHODS: Data on pa...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
CONCLUSION: The PTE frequency was higher compared to previous estimates. Increasing injury severity was associated with PTE 29-365 days post-TBI when measured with PTA, but not with GCS. Though nonsignificant, the increased PTE-risk within 28 days in lower severity suggests an underdiagnosing of PTE. PMID: 32506958 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Brain Injury - Category: Neurology Tags: Brain Inj Source Type: research
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