Unlocking the paradoxical endogenous stem cell response after spinal cord injury: Concise review

Response of spinal cord ependymal stem cells to spinal cord injury. A, Glutamate stimulates neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation and enhances survival through AMPA receptor activation. B, M1 macrophages increase pro ‐inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in NSPCs and enhance proliferation through MAPK‐Sox2 signaling. M2 macrophages increase anti‐inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in NSPCs, reduce proliferation, and increase neuronal differentiation. C, Myelin‐derived inhibitory proteins limit NSPC pr oliferation and neuronal differentiation via NgR1 signaling. D, NSPCs maintain a high endogenous level of ROS which promotes proliferation and survival. E, A portion of ependymal NSPCs differentiate into astrocytes after injury and contribute to the glial scar. F, NSPCs are capable of differentiatin g into oligodendrocytes with a capacity for remyelination. The blue area in A‐D represents an endogenous ependymal region NSPC. AbstractNearly a century ago, the concept of the secondary injury in spinal cord trauma was first proposed to explain the complex cascade of molecular and cellular events leading to widespread neuronal and glial cell death after trauma. In recent years, it has been established that the ependymal region of the adult mammalian spinal cord contains a population of multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) that are activated after spinal cord injury (SCI) and likely play a key role in endogenous repair and regeneration. How these c...
Source: Stem Cells - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: TISSUE ‐SPECIFIC STEM CELLS Source Type: research

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AbstractRegenerative medicine is a branch of translational research that aims to reestablish irreparably damaged tissues and organs by stimulating the body ’s own repair mechanismsvia the implantation of stem cells differentiated into specialized cell types. A rich source of adult stem cells is located inside the tooth and is represented by human dental pulp stem cells, or hDPSCs. These cells are characterized by a high proliferative rate, have self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation properties and are often used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The present review will provide an overview of h...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Response of spinal cord ependymal stem cells to spinal cord injury. A, Glutamate stimulates neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation and enhances survival through AMPA receptor activation. B, M1 macrophages increase pro ‐inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in NSPCs and enhance proliferation through MAPK‐Sox2 signaling. M2 macrophages increase anti‐inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in NSPCs, reduce proliferation, and increase neuronal differentiation. C, Myelin‐derived inhibitory proteins limit NSPC pr oliferation and neuronal differentiation via NgR1 signaling. D, NSPCs maintain a high endogenous leve...
Source: Stem Cells - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: TISSUE ‐SPECIFIC STEM CELLS Source Type: research
In this study, tissue-engineered nerves were first constructed by adipose-derived Schwann-like cells and ANAs to bridge missing sciatic nerves. Then, the rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=12 per group): a Control group; a Model group; an ADSC group; an SC-L group; and a DMEM group. Twelve weeks postsurgery, behavioral function tests and molecular biological techniques were used to evaluate the function of regenerated nerves and the relevant molecular mechanisms after sciatic nerve injury (SNI). The results showed that adipose-derived Schwann-like cells combined with ANAs markedly promoted sciatic nerve regener...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Materials Science and Engineering: CAuthor(s): Maxime Bonnet, Thomas Trimaille, Brezun Jean-Michel, François Feron, Didier Gigmes, Tanguy Marqueste, Patrick DecherchiAbstractIn line with experiments showing that implanted hydrogels are promising tools, we designed and injected, after a C2 spinal cord hemisection, a thermoresponsive and thermoreversible physically cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer in order to reduce functional deficits and provide a favorable environment to axotomized axons.Nasal olfactory ecto-mesenchyma...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Response of spinal cord ependymal stem cells to spinal cord injury. A, Glutamate stimulates neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation and enhances survival through AMPA receptor activation. B, M1 macrophages increase pro ‐inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in NSPCs and enhance proliferation through MAPK‐Sox2 signaling. M2 macrophages increase anti‐inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in NSPCs, reduce proliferation, and increase neuronal differentiation. C, Myelin‐derived inhibitory proteins limit NSPC pr oliferation and neuronal differentiation via NgR1 signaling. D, NSPCs maintain a high endogenous leve...
Source: Stem Cells - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Tissue ‐Specific Stem Cells Source Type: research
Mind-reading exoskeletons, digital tattoos, 3D printed drugs, RFID implants for recreational purposes: mindblowing innovations come to medicine and healthcare almost every single day. We shortlisted some of the greatest ideas and developments that could give us a glimpse into the future of medicine, but we found so many that we had trouble fitting them into one article. Here are the first ten spectacular medical innovations to watch for. 1) Mixed reality opens new ways for medical education Augmented, virtual, and mixed reality are all technologies opening new worlds for the human senses. While the difference between...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Future of Medicine 3d printing artificial food brain-computer interface cyborg digital tattoos drug development exoskeleton gamification google glass health insurance Healthcare Innovation List Medical education medical techn Source Type: blogs
Proposed model depicting the epidermal growth factor receptor ‐extracellular‐regulated kinase‐TRIM32 signaling axis in the regulation of neuronal differentiation. A, Under myelin‐associated inhibition, protein kinase C‐, Src‐Pyk2‐induced epidermal growth factor receptor‐extracellular‐regulated kinase signaling pathway was activated, resulting in TRIM32 inhibition and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells inhibition. B, Cetuximab and gefitinib can directly block epidermal growth factor receptor. Go6976 and PP2 were used to inhibit PKC and Src‐Pyk2, respectively, which resulted in epidermal growth...
Source: Stem Cells - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: TISSUE ‐SPECIFIC STEM CELLS Source Type: research
In this study, we further explored the mechanisms by which NSC-sEVs repair spinal cord injury via autophagy. We found that NSC-sEVs contain 14-3-3t protein, of which the overexpression or knockdown enhanced and decreased autophagy, respectively. In addition, 14-3-3t overexpression enhanced the anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of NSC-sEVs, further promoting functional behavior recovery following spinal cord injury. The overexpression of 14-3-3t was used to further validate the in vivo results through a series of in vitro experiments. Conversely, knockdown of 14-3-3t attenuated the anti-apoptotic and anti-inflamm...
Source: Aging - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research
In this study, researchers studied 438,952 participants in the UK Biobank, who had a total of 24,980 major coronary events - defined as the first occurrence of non-fatal heart attack, ischaemic stroke, or death due to coronary heart disease. They used an approach called Mendelian randomisation, which uses naturally occurring genetic differences to randomly divide the participants into groups, mimicking the effects of running a clinical trial. People with genes associated with lower blood pressure, lower LDL cholesterol, and a combination of both were put into different groups, and compared against those without thes...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Since the discovery of induced pluripotency more than a decade ago, researchers have been working towards the use of this technology to produce cells for use in tissue engineering and regenerative therapies. Induced pluripotent stem cells are functionally equivalent to embryonic stem cells; given suitable recipes and methods for the surrounding environment and signals, they can be made to generate any of the cell types in the body. The cornea of the eye is a comparatively simple starting point for tissue engineering, easier to work with in many ways, in generating tissues and in delivering cells to the patient. Here, the f...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
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