Evolution of infectious bronchitis virus in the field after homologous vaccination introduction

AbstractDespite the fact that vaccine resistance has been typically considered a rare phenomenon, some episodes of vaccine failure have been reported with increasing frequency in intensively-raised livestock. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a widespread avian coronavirus, whose control relies mainly on extensive vaccine administration. Unfortunately, the continuous emergence of new vaccine-immunity escaping variants prompts the development of new vaccines. In the present work, a molecular epidemiology study was performed to evaluate the potential role of homologous vaccination in driving IBV evolution. This was undertaken by assessing IBV viral RNA sequences from the ORF encoding the S1 portion of viral surface glycoprotein (S) before and after the introduction of a new live vaccine on broiler farms in northern-Italy. The results of several biostatistics analyses consistently demonstrate the presence of a higher pressure in the post-vaccination period. Natural selection was detected essentially on sites located on the protein surface, within or nearby domains involved in viral attachment or related functions. This evidence strongly supports the action of vaccine-induced immunity in conditioning viral evolution, potentially leading to the emergence of new vaccine-escape variants. The great plasticity of rapidly-evolving RNA-viruses in response to human intervention, which extends beyond the poultry industry, is demonstrated, claiming further attention due to their relevan...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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We examined the pathogenic effects of the viruses in chicken embryos and the size and morphology of the virus particles, performed phylogenetic analysis based on the S1 gene and complete genomic sequences, and examined the antibody responses against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The results suggested that the viruses I0623/17 and I0710/17 were avian coronaviruses and were identified as pheasant coronaviruses (PhCoV), with greatest similarity to IBV. Further investigations of the antigenicity, complete genome organization, substitutions in multiple genes, and viral pathogenicity, replication, and shedding in chickens a...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
J. Maier Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first identified in Hong Kong in 2012 from samples taken from pigs in 2009. PDCoV was subsequently identified in the USA in 2014 in pigs with a history of severe diarrhea. The virus has now been detected in pigs in several countries around the world. Following the development of tissue culture adapted strains of PDCoV, it is now possible to address questions regarding virus–host cell interactions for this genera of coronavirus. Here, we presented a detailed study of PDCoV-induced replication organelles. All positive-strand RNA viruses induce the rearrangement of ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In conclusion, the IBVs circulating in southern China over the past decade have experienced a remarkable change in genetic diversity, dominant genotypes, and selection pressure, indicating the importance of permanent monitoring of circulating strains and the urgency for developing new vaccines to counteract the emerging LX4-type and New-type IBVs.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract The coronavirus avian Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses economic threats to poultry farms worldwide, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. To define the evolution of recent IBVs in Iran, a genetic analysis based on hypervariable nucleotide sequences of S1 gene was carried out. Tracheal swab samples were collected from 170 Broiler flocks during 2017. Ten tracheal swabs from each flock pooled. From a total number of 170 flocks tested, 84.71% found to be positive. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed the presence of D274 as a first time in Iran. IS/1494/06 was showed to be do...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research
CP Abstract In backyard farms of Lao People's Democratic Republic, mixed-species rearing of poultry is a breeding-ground for cross-species transmission. Here, the epidemiology of viruses circulating among backyard poultry in Vientiane Province was assessed to guide future control strategies. Oral/tracheal and cloacal swabs, collected from 605 poultry (308 ducks, 297 chickens) between 2011 and 2015, were screened by PCR for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Coronavirus (CoV) and Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV). Chicken sera were screened for anti-NDV antibodies by ELISA. Statistical and phylogenetic analyses revealed tran...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Hossein Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Fallah Mehrabadi, Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Amir Modiri Hamdan, Zahra Ziafati, Reza Esmaealzadehdizaji, Peyman MohammadiAbstractThe coronavirus avian Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses economic threats to poultry farms worldwide, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. To define the evolution of recent IBVs in Iran, a genetic analysis based on hypervariable nucleotide sequences of S1 gene was carried out. Tracheal...
Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), are important respiratory pathogens of poultry. The heavily glycosylated IBV spike protein is responsible for binding to host tissues. Glycosylation sites in the spike protein are highly conserved across viral genotypes, suggesting an important role for this modification in the virus life cycle. Here, we analyzed the N-glycosylation of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of IBV strain M41 spike protein and assessed the role of this modification in host receptor binding. Ten single Asn–to–Ala substitutions at the predicted N-glycosylation sites of t...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices Source Type: research
Abstract Viral noncoding (nc) RNAs have been shown to play important roles in viral life cycle. Many viruses employ different mechanism to produce ncRNAs. Here, we report that coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) produces a novel ncRNA in virus-infected cells. This ncRNA consists of 563 nucleotides excluding a poly(A) tail, is mainly derived from the 3'-untranslated region of IBV genome, and contains a 63-nt-long of terminal leader sequence derived from the 5' end of the viral genome. Using mutagenesis and reverse genetics, we reveal that this ncRNA is a subgenomic RNA generated by discontinuous transcrip...
Source: Virology - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virology Source Type: research
In this study, we examined a different Ark vaccine strain (Ark99), which is no longer used commercially due to its reactivity in one day old chicks, to determine if it could be further attenuated by passage in embryonated eggs but still provide adequate protection. Further attenuation of the Ark99 vaccine was achieved by passage in embryonated eggs but ArkGA P1, P20, and P40 (designated ArkGA after P1) were still too reactive to be suitable vaccine candidates. However, ArkGA P60 when given by spray had little or no vaccine reaction in one day old broiler chicks, and it induced protection from clinical signs and ciliostasis...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
This study highlights further differences in the mechanism of membrane rearrangements between members of the coronavirus family.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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