Skin Cancer Diagnosis Based on Optimized Convolutional Neural Network

Publication date: Available online 8 November 2019Source: Artificial Intelligence in MedicineAuthor(s): Ni Zhang, Yi-Xin Cai, Yong-Yong Wang, Yi-Tao Tian, Xiao-Li Wang, Benjamin BadamiAbstractEarly detection of skin cancer is very important and can prevent some skin cancers, such as focal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Although there are several reasons that have bad impacts on the detection precision. Recently, the utilization of image processing and machine vision in medical applications is increasing. In this paper, a new image processing based method has been proposed for the early detection of skin cancer. The method utilizes an optimal Convolutional neural network (CNN) for this purpose. In this paper, improved whale optimization algorithm is utilized for optimizing the CNN. For evaluation of the proposed method, it is compared with some different methods on two different datasets. Simulation results show that the proposed method has superiority toward the other compared methods.
Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine - Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Tamara T. Lah, Metka Novak, Barbara BreznikAbstractBrain, the major organ of the central nervous system controls and processes most of body activities. Therefore, the most aggressive brain tumor – glioblastoma and metastases from other organs to the brain are lethal leaving the patients with very short time of survival. The brain tissue landscape is very different from any other tissues and the specific microenvironment, comprising stem cells niches and blood-brain barrier, significantly influences the low rate of glioblast...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Yu-kun Li, Juan Zou, Dong-mei Ye, Ying Zeng, Chang-ye Chen, Gui-fang Luo, Xi ZengAbstractAn oncogenic role, p21-activated kinase 5 (PAK5), has proven as a significant mediator for many cellular progression, which is expressed highly in human organs such as lung, liver, kidney, blood vessels endothelial cells and inflammatory cells. PAK5 was primitively detected in the cerebrum and accelerated the filopodia formation in neurocytes. It can reverse the effect of Rho and adjust its activity to mediate maintenance and development of nerve axon by ...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In this study, using melanoma and NSCLC cells, we demonstrate that ALDH3A1 isozyme overexpression and activity is closely associated with a highly aggressive mesenchymal and immunosuppressive profile. The contribution of ALDH3A1 to the stemness and immunogenic status of melanoma and NSCLC cells was evaluated by their ability to grow in 3D forming tumorspheres, and by the expression of markers for stemness, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and inflammation. Furthermore, in specimens from melanoma and NSCLC patients, we investigated the expression of ALDH3A1, PD-L1, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by immunohistochemi...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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Source: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2019Source: Genes &DiseasesAuthor(s): Wei Wang, Zhao-Hui WuAbstractUltraviolet radiation (UVR) is a prominent etiological factor of the pathogenesis of skin diseases such as squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. Excessive exposure to the natural sources of UVR such as sunlight or artificially from tanning lamps has been linked to the increasing incidence of skin cancers in the United States. Besides the skin inflammation, DNA damage and oncogenic mutation caused by UVR, UV exposure also plays a critical role in suppressing local and systemic immune responses which enable pr...
Source: Genes and Diseases - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Tremelimumab monotherapy demonstrated clinical activity and durable responses in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. This study is the first in which CR has been observed with tremelimumab as a single agent in urothelial carcinoma. PMID: 31801732 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundParaneoplastic syndromes (PNS) are autoimmune disorders specifically associated with cancer. There are few data on anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy in patients with a PNS. Our objective was to describe the outcome for patients with a pre-existing or newly diagnosed PNS following the initiation of anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy.MethodsWe included all adult patients (aged ≥18) treated with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy for a solid tumor, diagnosed with a PNS, and registered in French pharmacovigilance databases. Patients were allocated to cohorts 1 and 2 if the PNS had been diagnosed ...
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) is a secreted glycoprotein homologous to angiopoietins. Previous studies suggest that tumor cell-derived ANGPTL2 has tumor-promoting function. Here, we conducted mechanistic analysis comparing ANGPTL2 function in cancer progression in a murine syngeneic model of melanoma and a mouse model of translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC). ANGPTL2 deficiency in tumor cells slowed tRCC progression, supporting a tumor-promoting role. However, systemic ablation of ANGPTL2 accelerated tRCC progression, supporting a tumor-suppressing role. The syngeneic model also demonstrated a tumor-suppressing...
Source: Genes and Development - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research Papers Source Type: research
Now Available at Dermatology Specialists of Mississippi in Biloxi Biloxi, MS – Dermatology Specialists of Mississippi is now offering Superficial Radiation Therapy (SRT) as a treatment option for patients with non-melanoma skin cancer. This advanced technology is offered in less than 1% of dermatology clinics and has a 95%+ cure rate for non-melanoma skin cancer. There are four million new cases of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed in the United States each year... DermRads
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Radiation Oncology Source Type: forums
Authors: Phan K, Oh LJ, Goyal S, Rutherford T, Yazdabadi A Abstract BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) remain one of the most common non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Surgical options include primary excision with predetermined margins, frozen section controlled excision and Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). There is no randomized study comparing recurrence rates between different surgical techniques for periocular BCCs. METHODS: A meta-analysis of proportions was conducted for recurrence rates. Meta- regression was used for subgroup analysis to compare results in those undergoing MMS versus FSE or paraff...
Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatolog Treat Source Type: research
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