The role of the islet niche on beta cell structure and function

Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Journal of Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Eckhard Lammert, Peter ThornAbstractThe islets of Langerhans or pancreatic islets are pivotal in the control of blood glucose and are complex micro-organs embedded within the larger volume of the exocrine pancreas. Humans can have ∼3.2 million islets [1] which, to our current knowledge, function in a similar manner to sense circulating blood glucose levels and respond with the secretion of a mix of different hormones that act to maintain glucose concentrations around a specific set point [2]. At a cellular level the control of hormone secretion by glucose and other secretagogues is well understood [3]. The key signal cascades have been identified and many details of the secretory process are known. However, if we shift focus from single cells and consider cells within intact islets, we do not have a comprehensive model as to how the islet environment influences cell function and how the islets work as a whole. This is important, because there is overwhelming evidence that the structure and function of the individual endocrine cells are dramatically affected by the islet environment [4], [5]. Uncovering the influence of this islet niche might drive future progress in treatments for type 2 diabetes [6] and cell replacement therapies for type 1 diabetes [7]. In this review we focus on the insulin secreting beta cells and their interactions with the immediate environment that surr...
Source: Journal of Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Related Links:

This article discusses the available CGM and insulin pump systems and the clinical benefits of their use in adults with type 1 diabetes, intensively insulin-treated type 2 diabetes, and pregnant patients with preexisting diabetes.
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
According to a study published inDiabetologia, preterm birth may increase risk of developing type 1 and type 2 diabetes in adulthood.Med Page Today
Source: Society for Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Trends in Endocrinology &MetabolismAuthor(s): Jennifer R. Snaith, Deborah J. Holmes-Walker, Jerry R. GreenfieldIndividuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) frequently fail to achieve glycemic goals and have excess cardiovascular risk and premature death. Adjunctive agents may play a role in reducing morbidity, mortality, and the adverse sequelae of insulin treatment. A surge in type 2 diabetes drug development has revealed agents with benefits beyond glucose lowering, including cardiovascular risk reduction. Could these benefits translate to T1D? Specific trials for T...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsThe clinical decision regarding timing of delivery is complex and contingent on maternal ‐fetal wellbeing, including adequate glycemic control. This study suggests that delivery at 38, 39 or 40 weeks’ gestation may optimize neonatal outcomes among women with diabetes.
Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our estimated rates of prevalence of GP in T1DM and T2DM indicate that GP is not a common clinical complication in these populations. Majority of EMRs that indicated a diagnosis of GP did not include any documentation of definitive diagnostic testing (EGD and/or GES).
Source: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ALIMENTARY TRACT: Original Articles Source Type: research
ConclusionsCirculating TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 are independently associated with higher risk of renal disease progression, CVD events, and mortality in patients with diabetes and might contribute to the clinical risk assessment in the future.
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
AbstractPhysiological plasticity enables homeostasis to be maintained in biological systems, but when such allostasis fails, then disease can develop. In a new population-based study by Rolandsson et al (, autoimmunity, defined by an immunogenotype, predicted adult-onset non-insulin requiring diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is no longer viewed as a disease confined to children, with a significant proportion, maybe the majority, presenting in adulthood. Such cases masquerade as type 2 diabetes and their identification has clinical utility. Nevertheless, in this study, autoimmunity had a ...
Source: Diabetologia - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
FRIDAY, Dec. 6, 2019 -- Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk for type 1 and type 2 diabetes from childhood into early and middle adulthood, according to a study published online Dec. 3 in Diabetologia. Casey Crump, M.D., from the Icahn...
Source: - Pharma News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
Infants born prematurely were at increased risk of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in ensuing decades.
Source: NYT Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Diabetes Premature Babies Babies and Infants Pregnancy and Childbirth Source Type: news
More News: Biology | Diabetes | Diabetes Type 1 | Diabetes Type 2 | Endocrinology | Environmental Health | Hormones | Insulin | Molecular Biology | Pancreas