Genetic data support speciation between Panstrongylus howardi and Panstrongylus chinai, vectors of Chagas disease in Ecuador.

Genetic data support speciation between Panstrongylus howardi and Panstrongylus chinai, vectors of Chagas disease in Ecuador. Infect Genet Evol. 2019 Nov 04;:104103 Authors: Barnabé C, Grijalva MJ, Santillán-Guayasamín S, Yumiseva CA, Waleckx E, Brenière SF, Villacís AG Abstract Limited genetic data are currently available for three vectors of Chagas disease in Ecuador, Panstrongylus howardi, P. chinai, and P. rufotuberculatus. Previously regarded as mainly sylvatic, these species have been poorly studied. Recently, they have been more frequently reported in domiciles and peridomiciles and are now considered true secondary vectors of Chagas disease in a country where an estimated 200,000 people are infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, a causative agent of this disease. In order to fill this gap, we obtained DNA for sequencing from 53 insects belonging to these three species and mainly sampled from the two Ecuadorian provinces of Loja and Manabí. We used six mitochondrial loci (COI, COII, ND4, CytB, 16S, and 12S) and two nuclear ones (ITS2 and 18S). We interpreted the phylogenetic trees built with single and concatenated data through maximum likelihood, Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo, and maximum parsimony methods. We provide evidence that P. chinai and P. howardi are indeed two supported species closely related and derived from a common ancestor. Additionally, the phylogenetic position of P. rufotuberculatus was con...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: MicronAuthor(s): Andrezza Raposo Borges de Melo, Taciana Mirely Maciel Higino, Aline Dulce Pitt da Rocha Oliveira, Adriana Fontes, Diego César Nunes da Silva, Maria Carolina Accioly Brelaz de Castro, José Arimatéia Dantas Lopes, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de FigueiredoAbstractChagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is considered a public health problem. The current chemotherapy for this illness causes serious side effects and its use in the chronic phase of the disease is still controversial. In this sense, the investigatio...
Source: Micron - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Almeida CE Abstract Triatoma petrocchiae is the newly member of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex. This species overlaps with T. brasiliensis in geographic and ecotypic occupation in the sylvatic habitat because both inhabit rocky outcrops in the semi-arid portion of Brazilian northeast. In this region T. brasiliensis is the most important Chagas disease vector because it constantly colonizes domiciles. In contrast, T. petrocchiae is rarely found in peri or intradomiciliary habitats - reason why little is known about this species. Therefore, Here, we present information for the first time on. the T. petro...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Abstract Phospholipids are the main component of membranes and are responsible for cell integrity. Alkylphospholipid analogues (APs) were first designed as antitumoral agents and were later tested against different cell types. Trypanosoma cruzi, the Chagas disease etiological agent, is sensitive to APs (edelfosine, miltefosine and ilmofosine) in vitro. We investigated the effect of synthetic ring substituted AP against epimastigotes, amastigotes, and trypomastigotes. TCAN26, could inhibit the in vitro growth of epimastigotes and amastigotes with the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) in the nanomolar range. Tryp...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Pérez-Silanes S Abstract The current chemotherapy against Chagas disease is inadequate and insufficient. A series of ten Mannich base-type derivatives have been synthesized to evaluate their in vitro antichagasic activity. After a preliminary screening, compounds 7 and 9 were subjected to in vivo assays in a murine model. Both compounds caused a substantial decrease in parasitemia in the chronic phase, which was an even better result than that of the reference drug benznidazole. In addition, compound 9 also showed better antichagasic activity during the acute phase. Moreover, metabolite excretion, effect o...
Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Bioorg Med Chem Source Type: research
Abstract The MeOH extract from leaves of Saururus cernuus L. (Saururaceae) displayed in vitro activity against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi (100% of parasite death at 200 μg/mL), suggesting the presence of bioactive compounds. Thus, the bioactivity-guided fractionation was carried out, leading to the isolation of three related neolignan derivatives, identified as threo-austrobailignan-5 (1), threo-austrobailignan-6 (2), and threo-dihydroguaiaretic acid (3). Anti-T. cruzi activity of compounds 1-3 was performed against cell-derived trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Additionally, the mammalian ...
Source: Fitoterapia - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Fitoterapia Source Type: research
Rhodnius montenegrensis (Triatominae), a potential vector of Chagas disease, was described after R. robustus-like bugs from southwestern Amazonia. Mitochondrial cytb sequence near-identity with sympatric R. robus...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Abstract The reduviid subfamily Triatominae, also called kissing bugs, are vectors of Chagas disease, which is one of the most seriously neglected tropical parasitic diseases. Only three complete mitochondrial genomes of kissing bugs from the genus Triatoma have been sequenced to date. To better understand the diversity of mitochondrial genomes and the evolution of kissing bugs, mitochondrial genomes of three kissing bugs, Triatoma migrans, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus, and Rhodnius pictipes, were sequenced using next-generation sequencing and a comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis of three genera and two ...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research
Abstract The choice of cost-effective molecular methods for diagnosing and monitoring of Chagas disease before and after treatment is crucial in endemic countries with high patients' demand and limited financial resources. To this end, a kDNA was compared to a satellite real-time quantitative PCR (sat-qPCR), both amplifications using Sybr Green instead of Taqman hydrolysis probes. Non-isogenic Swiss albino mice were infected with a small inoculum of the highly virulent and partially resistant to benznidazole Y strain, belonging to T. cruzi discrete typing unit II (DTU-II) that predominates in Atlantic and Central ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Revisiting the Homoploid Hybrid Speciation Process of the Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 (Hemiptera, Triatominae) Using Cytogenetic and Molecular Markers. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Feb 18;: Authors: Guerra AL, Borsatto KC, Teixeira NPD, Madeira FF, de Oliveira J, Aristeu da Rosa J, Oliveira MTVA, Alevi KCC Abstract Triatomines are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Although the evolutionary process in triatomine is considered as disruptive, cryptic speciation and homoploid hybridization also are possible modes of speciation. Several analyses sug...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
We present a series of new long-chain squaramides, identified based on their 1H and 13C NMR spectra, and their trypanocidal activity and cytotoxicity were tested in vitro through the determination of IC50 values. Compounds 4 and 7 were more active and less toxic than the reference drug Benznidazole, and these results were the basis of promoting in vivo assays, where parasitaemia levels, assignment of cure, reactivation of parasitaemia and others parameters were determined in mice treated in both the acute and chronic phases. Finally, the mechanisms of action were elucidated at metabolic and mitochondrial levels and superox...
Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Bioorg Med Chem Source Type: research
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