New immunodeficiency syndromes that help us understand the IFN-mediated antiviral immune response
Purpose of review Studying primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) provides insights into human antiviral immunity in the natural infectious environment. This review describes new PIDs with genetic defects that impair innate antiviral responses. Recent findings New genetic defects in the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway include IFNAR1 deficiency, which causes uncontrolled infections with measles-mumps-rubella or yellow fever vaccines, and possibly also cytomegalovirus (CMV); and IRF9 deficiency, which results in influenza virus susceptibility. Genetic defects in several pattern recognition receptors include MDA5 deficiency, which impairs viral RNA sensing and confers human rhinovirus susceptibility; RNA polymerase III haploinsufficiency, which impairs sensing of A:T-rich virus DNA and confers VZV susceptibility; and TLR3 deficiency, which causes HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE) or influenza virus pneumonitis. Defects in RNA metabolism, such as that caused by Debranching enzyme 1 deficiency, can cause virus meningoencephalitis. Finally, defects in host restriction factors for virus replication, such as in CIB1 deficiency, contribute to uncontrolled β-HPV infections. Summary Several new PIDs highlight the role of type I/III IFN signaling pathway, virus sensors, and host virus restriction factors in human antiviral immunity.
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Publication date: Available online 19 September 2020Source: Journal of BiotechnologyAuthor(s): J. Porter Hunt, R. Jordan Barnett, Hannah Robinson, Mehran Soltani, J. Andrew D. Nelson, Bradley C. Bundy
Authors: Salvamani S, Tan HZ, Thang WJ, Ter HC, Wa MS, Gunasekaran B, Rhodes A Abstract The COVID-19 disease is caused by the recently identified SARS-CoV-2 virus, thought to have originated in bats (Rhinolophus affinis), the virus being highly infective within the human population and spread by respiratory droplets, contaminated surfaces and close person-to-person contact. The virus is now pandemic and widely disseminated to almost every continent and nation with globally over twenty-seven million infections and over ninety-thousand reported deaths attributed to the COVID-19 disease. SARS-CoV-2 is a single strande...
(Natural News) There’s been a lot of talk in recent months about how the coronavirus pandemic will end. Some are putting their hopes on a vaccine, while others believe it would be enough to find an effective treatment for those who are hit with the more severe form of the disease. However, some experts are...
[Comment] The COVID‑19 pandemic as a scientific and social challenge in the 21st century. Mol Med Rep. 2020 Jul 30;: Authors: Zoumpourlis V, Goulielmaki M, Rizos E, Baliou S, Spandidos DA Abstract The coronavirus disease‑2019 (COVID‑19) pandemic, caused by the new coronavirus SARS‑CoV‑2, has spread around the globe with unprecedented consequences for the health of millions of people. While the pandemic is still in progress, with new incidents being reported every day, the resilience of the global society is constantly being challenged. Under these circumstances, the future seems uncertain. SA...
Authors: Al-Qahtani AA, Alarifi S, Alkahtani S, Stournaras C, Sourvinos G Abstract Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent viral pathogen, which can cause severe clinical consequences in neonates, immunocompromised individuals, patients with AIDS, and organ and stem cell transplant recipients. HCMV inhibits the host cell cycle progress while the immediate‑early protein 1 (IE1) tethers to condensed chromatin in mitotic cells. The present study investigated the effect of HCMV on the cell cycle in human glioblastoma cells, as well as the role of RhoA GTPase during mitosis in the same context. Live cell microscop...
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