Uncovering Typhoid's Lethal Secret

Typhoid fever is one of the oldest documented diseases known to have afflicted mankind but what makes it so lethal has remained a mystery for centuries. In a study appearing online in the journal Nature, Yale researchers offer an explanation of how the devastating disease marked by delirium and stupor still kills 200,000 people every year - and also suggests the basis of a future vaccine. The culprit appears to be a powerful toxin possessed by Salmonella typhi, the bacterium that causes typhoid fever...
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Tropical Diseases Source Type: news

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This report provides an update on U.S. cases of XDR typhoid fever linked to Pakistan and describes a new, unrelated cluster of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi infections linked to Iraq. Travelers to areas with endemic Typhi should receive typhoid vaccination before traveling and adhere to safe food and water precautions (4). Treatment of patients with typhoid fever should be guided by antimicrobial susceptibility testing whenever possible (5), and clinicians should consider travel history when selecting empiric therapy. PMID: 32437343 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Abstract Typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonelleae (NTS) cause typhoid fever and gastroenteritis, respectively, in humans. Salmonella typhoid toxin contributes to typhoid disease progression and chronic infection, but little is known about the role of its NTS ortholog. We found that typhoid toxin and its NTS ortholog induce different clinical presentations. The PltB subunit of each toxin exhibits different glycan-binding preferences that correlate with glycan expression profiles of host cells targeted by each bacterium at the primary infection or intoxication sites. Through co-crystal structures of PltB subunits bo...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research
Reviving the "Moore swab": a classic environmental surveillance tool involving filtration of flowing surface water and sewage water to recover typhoidal Salmonella. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2020 Apr 24;: Authors: Sikorski MJ, Levine MM Abstract The Moore swab is a classic environmental surveillance tool whereby a gauze pad tied with string is suspended in flowing water or wastewater contaminated with human feces and harboring enteric pathogens that pose a human health threat. In contrast to single volume "grab" samples, Moore swabs act as continuous filters to "trap" micro...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract Typhoid conjugate vaccines represent a new tool for typhoid control; however, incidence data are needed to inform decisions about introduction. We sought to estimate typhoid and paratyphoid fever incidence in Vientiane, the capital and largest city of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). We did a representative cluster survey of health-seeking behavior for fever in Vientiane from January 15, 2019 through January 26, 2019. Multipliers derived from the survey were applied to data from Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A bloodstream infection surveillance from Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a highly invasive bacterium that infects the human intestinal mucosa and causes ~  11.9–20.6 million infections and ~ 130,000–223,000 deaths annually worldwide. Oral...
Source: Journal of Translational Medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
We report a case of co-infection with Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A confirmed by blood culture in a child aged 8 years 5 months with history of typhoid vaccination from an ongoing fever surveillance cohort in an urban slum of New Delhi. Co-infections such as these have important implications on diagnosis, treatment options including choice of antimicrobial(s), disease outcome and strategy for prevention.
Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Typhoid fever, which is caused by enteric bacterium, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is an acute generalized infection. WHO estimates the annual global incidence of typhoid fever at 11-21 million cases and approximately 128000 to 161000 deaths (World Health Organization, 2018). Children are the most affected age group with a peak incidence known to occur in individuals aged 5 to
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
We describe the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) infection in Laos based on isolates accrued over 18 years at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane. All blood cultures collected from patients presenting with fever submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory at Mahosot Hospital (February 2000-December 2018) were included. This included patients from Vientiane and four provincial hospitals and one typhoid outbreak investigation. A total of 913 (1.5%) of 60,384 blood cultures were positive for S. Typhi. The majority of isolates with data available (712/898, 79.3%) were ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
a Saderi Andrea Piana Enteric fever is a foodborne infectious disease caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, B and C. The high incidence in low income countries can increase the risk of disease in travelers coming from high income countries. Pre-travel health advice on hygiene and sanitation practices and vaccines can significantly reduce the risk of acquiring infections. Although the majority of the cases are self-limiting, life-threatening complications can occur. Delayed diagnosis and cases of infections caused by multi-drug resistant strains can complicate the clinical management and affec...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
We describe here the further spectroscopic characterisation of this series of glycoconjugate immunogen bulks using NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism and absorption spectroscopy. We have used several mathematical approaches to extract information from the spectroscopic data not previously applied to glycoconjugates. These complementary approaches provide information on (i) the integrity of the carrier protein, (ii) consistency between batches of vaccine components, (iii) the polysaccharide: protein ratio (iv) the O-acetylation of the Vi in the conjugate (v) the stability of the O-acetylation of the Vi, and (vi) the prese...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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