New metabolic imaging tools in neuro-oncology

Purpose of review The current treatment of gliomas dovetails results of decades-old clinical trials with modern trends in chemotherapy. Molecular characterization now plays a pivotal role, and IDH mutations are key characteristics and the subject of active debate. IDH-mutant tumors produce the ‘onco-metabolite’, 2-hydroxyglutarate. Metabolic changes have become central to the understanding of tumor biology, and tumors display a fundamental metabolic change called the Warburg Effect. The Warburg Effect represents a preference for glycolysis, as opposed to oxidative phosphorylation. The present review details the clinical context and discusses clinical and preclinical metabolic imaging tools to characterize the Warburg Effect. Recent findings A clinical Warburg Index is proposed, defined as the lactate concentration measured by 1H-MRSI over the SUV measured by FDG-PET, to measure the Warburg Effect. A preclinical technique called deuterium metabolic imaging has successfully imaged the Warburg Effect in vivo in glioblastoma. Summary Metabolic imaging provides an opportunity to measure the Warburg Effect and other metabolic changes in brain tumors. An increased understanding of metabolic shifts integral to brain cancer has the potential to address multiple contemporary debates on glioma pathophysiology and treatment. Metabolic imaging tools thus have the potential to advance research findings, clinical trial development, and clinical care.
Source: Current Opinion in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: NEOPLASMS: Edited by Antonio Omuro Source Type: research

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ville Malignant gliomas are one of the deadliest forms of brain cancer and despite advancements in treatment, patient prognosis remains poor, with an average survival of 15 months. Treatment using conventional chemotherapy does not deliver the required drug dose to the tumour site, owing to insufficient blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration, especially by hydrophilic drugs. Additionally, low molecular weight drugs cannot achieve specific accumulation in cancerous tissues and are characterized by a short circulation half-life. Nanoparticles can be designed to cross the BBB and deliver their drugs within the brain, thus ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
AbstractIn the pediatric population, brain tumors represent the most commonly diagnosed solid neoplasms and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally. They include low-grade gliomas (LGGs), medulloblastomas (MBs), and other embryonal, ependymal, and neuroectodermal tumors. The mainstay of treatment for most brain tumors includes surgical intervention, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. However, resistance to conventional therapy is widespread, which contributes to the high mortality rates reported and lack of improvement in patient survival despite advancement in therapeutic research. This has been attributed t...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGG) are the most frequent brain tumors in children. Up to 50% will be refractory to conventional chemotherapy. It is now known that the majority of PLGG have activation of the MA...
Source: BMC Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Study protocol Source Type: research
ConclusionThe vast divergence in prognosis between young and old GBM patients is largely caused by choice of treatment rather than age ‐related tumor genomic characteristics. Postoperative standard radio‐ and chemotherapy provide strong benefits to primary glioblastoma patients of all ages.
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
alho Giovanna B. Longato Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and highest–grade brain tumor in adults. The prognosis is still poor despite the use of combined therapy involving maximal surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The development of more efficient drugs without noticeable side effects is urgent. Coronarin D is a diterpene obtained from the rhizome extract of Hedychium coronarium, classified as a labdane with several biological activities, principally anticancer potential. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti–cancer properties of Coronarin D in the gliobl...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Authors: Xu CH, Xiao LM, Zeng EM, Chen LK, Zheng SY, Li DH, Liu Y Abstract Gliomas are aggressive type of brain tumors and cause significant human mortality world over. The frequent relapses, development of drug resistance, the adverse effects of the chemotherapy and dearth of the therapeutic targets form the major hurdles in glioma treatment. Several studies suggest that microRNAs (miRs) are involved in the development and progression of different cancers. Herein, the therapeutic potential of miR-181 was explored in human glioma cells. The results showed that miR-181 is significantly downregulated in human glioma ...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
Daria Riva Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) is a monogenic tumor-predisposition syndrome creating a wide variety of cognitive and behavioral abnormalities, such as decrease in cognitive functioning, deficits in visuospatial processing, attention, and social functioning. NF1 patients are at risk to develop neurofibromas and other tumors, such as optic pathway gliomas and other tumors of the central nervous system. Few studies have investigated the impact of an additional diagnosis of brain tumor on the cognitive outcome of children with NF1, showing unclear results and without controlling by the effect of surgery, radio-...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: 6 November 2019Source: Neuron, Volume 104, Issue 3Author(s): David H. Gutmann, Helmut KettenmannOne of the most common brain tumors in children and adults is glioma or astrocytoma. There are few effective therapies for these cancers, and patients with malignant glioma fare poorly, even after aggressive surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Over the past decade, it is now appreciated that these tumors are composed of numerous distinct neoplastic and non-neoplastic cell populations, which could each influence overall tumor biology and response to therapy. Among these noncancerous cell types, monocytes (micr...
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In pediatric brain tumors, the intensification of chemotherapy has allowed for a reduction in radiotherapy (RT) volume to an involved field approach, particularly in patients with medulloblastoma. For patients with low-grade gliomas, the trend has remained to delay RT with chemotherapy; however, when RT is used, typically smaller clinical target volume margins are used. For patients with extracranial tumors, intensive chemotherapy to address systemic disease with local control is considered standard. Proton beam therapy shows significant promise in addressing both short-term and long-term toxicities in both central nervous...
Source: Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions. In summary, RES529, the first dual TORC1/TORC2 dissociative inhibitor, lacking affinity for ABCB1/ABCG2 and having good brain penetration, was active in GBM preclinical/murine models giving credence to its use in clinical trial for patients with GBM treated in association with anti-angiogenetic compounds.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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