Clearance of cerebrospinal fluid from the sacral spine through lymphatic vessels

The pathways of circulation and clearance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the spine have yet to be elucidated. We have recently shown with dynamic in vivo imaging that routes of outflow of CSF in mice occur along cranial nerves to extracranial lymphatic vessels. Here, we use near-infrared and magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate the flow of CSF tracers within the spinal column and reveal the major spinal pathways for outflow to lymphatic vessels in mice. We found that after intraventricular injection, a spread of CSF tracers occurs within both the central canal and the spinal subarachnoid space toward the caudal end of the spine. Outflow of CSF tracers from the spinal subarachnoid space occurred predominantly from intravertebral regions of the sacral spine to lymphatic vessels, leading to sacral and iliac LNs. Clearance of CSF from the spine to lymphatic vessels may have significance for many conditions, including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury.
Source: The Journal of Experimental Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Cardiovascular Biology, Neuroscience Brief Definitive Reports Source Type: research

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We present 2 cases of paraplegia due to NMO with rehabilitation outcome. Patient concerns: The first case corresponds to a 65-year-old woman with NMO presented with C4 incomplete American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scale D, and the second case is a 41-year-old woman with NMO presented with C1 incomplete ASIA-C. Diagnoses: Two cases were confirmed by positive anti-aquaporin-4 antibody and presence of T2-weighted hyperintense lesion in spinal cord on magnetic resonance imaging. Intervention: The first patient planned for focusing on left hand fine motor training through occupational therapy by strengthening an...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Shanshan Zhang1, Dongli Yuan2 and Ge Tan1* 1Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China 2The Institute of Medical Information, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China Primary systemic vasculitis can affect every structure in both the central and peripheral nervous system, causing varied neurological manifestations of neurological dysfunction. Early recognition of the underlying causes of the neurological symptoms can facilitate timely treatment and improve the prognosis. This review highlights the clinical manifestations of primary systemic vasc...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion To conclude, this study suggests a preserved plasticity in the skeletal muscle of a patient with MELAS. More importantly, Resistance Training appears to be a safe and effective method to increase skeletal muscle function in this patient population, and this effect is mediated by both neuromuscular and mitochondrial adaptations. However, particular attention and caution is needed in the interpretation of the data of this single case study and further studies are warranted including larger sample of patients. Ethics Statement For this case study the participant caregiver provided written informed consent. Auth...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusion The key problem with the ND field is the lack of understanding in the events preceding the development of protein-based markers – such as Tau – currently used to diagnose NDs. By this stage, the diseases become more difficult to treat. SncRNAs play an important regulatory role in the maintenance of the homeostatic brain. Therefore, changes in their concentration levels can be indicative of mechanistic changes that could precede protein-based markers. One single sncRNA biomarker is unlikely to differentiate between diseases. However, a combination of sncRNA biomarkers could be illustrative of the me...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusions OCB are important biomarkers that can support MRI diagnostics and help to avoid false-positive MS diagnoses. Therefore, the revised McDonalds criteria have increased the importance of the OCB. New biomarkers such as AQP4 have now established themselves in clinical practice, and others such as Anti-MOG and NfL are about to enter clinical routine. An important focus in the search for new biomarkers is the monitoring of therapy efficacy and the prediction of severe side effects. Many other CSF molecules such as CHI3L1, IL-6, or CXCL13 show potential as markers for clinical practice, but further research is nee...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions The momentous advances in spinal imaging in ALS suggest the spinal metrics may soon be used as validated diagnostic, monitoring, and prognostic markers, contributing both to individualized patient care and pharmacological trials. Author Contributions ME, GQ, PB, and P-FP contributed equally to the conceptualization, drafting, and revision of the manuscript. Funding Peter Bede is supported by the Health Research Board (HRB—Ireland; HRB EIA-2017-019), the Iris O'Brien Foundation, the Irish Institute of Clinical Neuroscience IICN—Novartis Ireland Research Grant, and the Research Motor Neur...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Graham Cooper1,2,3, Carsten Finke2,4, Claudia Chien1,3, Alexander U. Brandt1,3,5, Susanna Asseyer1,3, Klemens Ruprecht6, Judith Bellmann-Strobl1,3, Friedemann Paul1,2,3,6*† and Michael Scheel1,3,7† 1NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany 2Einstein Center for Neurosciences, Berlin, Germany 3Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charité – Universitä...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Kenichi Serizawa1*, Haruna Tomizawa-Shinohara1, Hideyuki Yasuno2, Kenji Yogo1 and Yoshihiro Matsumoto1 1Product Research Department, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Shizuoka, Japan 2Product Research Department, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Kanagawa, Japan Chronic pain is a significant symptom in patients with autoimmune encephalomyelitis, such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. The most commonly used animal model of these diseases is experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We previously reported that evoked pain, such as mechanical allodynia, was improved by an anti-IL-6 receptor antibod...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions The data demonstrated that BSYSC exhibited the neuroprotective effect against EAE by promoting oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) proliferation and differentiation, thus facilitating remyelination. Sema3A/NRP-1, LIF/LIFR and Nkx6.2 are likely contributed to the effects of BSYSC on OPCs. Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Dan C Li, James G Malcolm, Rima S Rindler, Griffin R Baum, Avinash Rao, Shekar N Khurpad, Faiz U AhmadNeurology India 2017 65(5):982-992Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for noninvasive, in vivo visualization of white matter fiber tracts in the central nervous system by measuring the diffusion of water molecules. It provides both quantitative and qualitative (i.e., tractography) means to describe a region-of-interest. While protocols for the use of DTI are better established in the brain, the efficacy and potential applications of DTI in spinal cord pathology are less understood. In this review, we examine the current ...
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
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