Increasing Burden of Hepatitis A in Adolescents and Adults and the Need for Long-Term Protection: A Review from the Indian Subcontinent

AbstractHepatitis A, an acute inflammatory liver disease caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection from close contact with infected people, is highly endemic in the Indian subcontinent. Due to poor sanitary conditions, most of the population is exposed to the virus in childhood. At this age, the disease is asymptomatic and provides life-long protection against the disease. Due to rapid socioeconomic development in some areas, however, pockets of the population are reaching adolescence/adulthood without prior exposure to the virus and are thus susceptible to infection. At these ages, infection carries a higher risk of symptomatic disease and complications including mortality. This review of epidemiology and burden of disease studies in the Indian subcontinent, published since 2005, shows increasing evidence of a shift from high to intermediate endemicity in high-income —typically urban—populations. The prevalence of anti-HAV antibodies (previously reported at >  90%) is lower now in adolescents and young adults (e.g., around 80% in Bangladesh and 55% in 5–15 years in India). As a result, HAV is responsible for more acute viral hepatitis predominantly in this age group (e.g., >  15 years: 3.4% in 1999 to 12.3% in 2003 or high socioeconomic status 13–20 years: 27% in 1999 to 62% in 2003), with a greater clinical and economic burden. Numerous outbreaks due to HAV have been reported [e.g., Sri Lanka (2009&n...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental HepatologyAuthor(s): Aabha Nagral, Moinak S. Sarma, John Matthai, Prashanth L. Kukkle, Harshad Devarbhavi, Sanjib Sinha, Seema Alam, Ashish Bavdekar, Radha K. Dhiman, Chundamannil E. Eapen, Vinay Goyal, Neelam Mohan, Rukmini M. Kandadai, Malathi Sathiyasekaran, Ujjal Poddar, Anupam Sibal, Srinivas Sankaranarayanan, Anshu Srivastava, Baburam R. Thapa, Pettarusp M. Wadia
Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Hepatobiliary &Pancreatic Diseases InternationalAuthor(s): Sameh A Lashen, Mohamed M. Elshafei, Fahmy H. Hablass, Eman A. Alsayed, Asmaa A. HassanAbstractBackgroundRisk stratification and prognostication of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) help to improve patient outcome. Herein we investigated the role of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) in the prediction of HCC behavior.MethodsTotally 121 naïve patients with HCC were included. HCC radiological evaluation and staging were done. LSM was measured using virtual touch quantification. Patients were divided into...
Source: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Abstract The close connection and interaction between the cardiac and the liver functions are well-known, as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important clinical entity which best describes the mutual pathogenical influence between these two organs. Due to the fact that cardiac dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatic disorders is oligosymptomatic or even asymptomatic, an early diagnosis represents a challenge for every physician. Syndecan-1-a transmembrane proteoglycan that exerts its functions mainly via its heparane sulfate chains-is a very promising biomarker, correlated not only with the degree of cardiac fi...
Source: Cardiology Research and Practice - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Cardiol Res Pract Source Type: research
Conclusion: Results revealed a significant association between elevated APRI and HCC development in patients with chronic hepatitis, suggesting that APRI might serve as a valuable predictor for HCC risk in patients with chronic hepatitis. PMID: 31814857 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Disease Markers - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Dis Markers Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Indian Heart JournalAuthor(s): Sreenivas Reddy, Suraj Kumar, Jeet Ram Kashyap, Raghavendra Rao, Vikas Kadiyala, Hithesh Reddy, Naindeep Kaur, Vadivelu Ramalingam, Jaspreet KaurAbstractObjectiveThe coronary artery dimensions have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications in management of coronary artery disease (CAD). There is paucity of data on the coronary artery size in the Indian population as measured by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS).MethodsA total of 303 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) wi...
Source: Indian Heart Journal - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica BAuthor(s): Tingting Yan, Nana Yan, Ping Wang, Yangliu Xia, Haiping Hao, Guangji Wang, Frank J. GonzalezAbstractFew medications are available for meeting the increasing disease burden of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progressive stage, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Traditional herb medicines (THM) have been used for centuries to treat indigenous people with various symptoms but without clarified modern-defined disease type and mechanisms. In modern times, NAFLD was defined as a common chronic disease leading to mo...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study can contribute to decision-making about potential prices for a chikungunya vaccine once it becomes available in Brazil. We demonstrated the relevance of the anchoring effect as a possible influence applied to the maximum value of the WTP associated with respondents' preference for a new vaccine. Finally, we encourage the development of a chikungunya virus vaccine to benefit the Brazilian population. PMID: 31815561 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research - Category: Health Management Tags: Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2020Source: International Journal of Educational Development, Volume 72Author(s): Ambrish Dongre, Vibhu TewaryAbstractAlarmed by declining enrolment in government schools and potentially adverse academic, administrative and fiscal consequences associated with it, policy makers in India have initiated experimenting with closure of government schools with low enrolments (‘small’ schools), an exercise commonly referred to as ‘school rationalisation’. However, the impact of this policy on access to schooling and learning remains empirically unexplored. Utilising ASER 2014 data,...
Source: International Journal of Educational Development - Category: Child Development Source Type: research
A multivalent HIV vaccine that consists of envelope protein (gp120 Env) and either DNA or NYVAC vectors during priming leads to early and potent IgG-binding antibody responses, according to results from the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN).Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Allergy Headlines - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: HIV/AIDS News Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Qingtao Liu, Jing Yang, Xinmei Huang, Yuzhuo Liu, Kaikai Han, Dongmin Zhao, Lijiao Zhang, Yin LiAbstractAvian influenza subtype H9N2 infection is a mild but highly contagious disease that is associated with a decrease in the efficacy of vaccine interventions, and an increase in susceptibility to secondary infections in poultry. However, the immune evasion mechanism of H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in chickens is poorly understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells of major importance, involved in innate ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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