Optimizing intracellular antibodies (intrabodies/nanobodies) to treat neurodegenerative disorders.

Optimizing intracellular antibodies (intrabodies/nanobodies) to treat neurodegenerative disorders. Neurobiol Dis. 2019 Oct 25;:104619 Authors: Messer A, Butler DC Abstract Intrabodies (both single-chain Fv and single-domain VH, VHH, and VL nanobodies) offer unique solutions to some of the challenges of delivery and target engagement posed by immunotherapeutics for the brain and other areas of the nervous system. The specificity, which includes the recognition of post-translational modifications, and capacity for engineering that characterize these antibody fragments can be especially well-focused when the genes encoding only the binding sites of the antibody are expressed intracellularly. Multifunctional constructs use fusions with peptides that can re-target antigen-antibody complexes to enhance both pharmacodynamic activity and intracellular solubility simultaneously. Fusions with proteolytic targeting signals, such as the PEST degron, greatly enhance potency in some cases. Stem cell transplants can be protected from exogenous misfolded proteins by stable transfection with intrabodies. Tandem expression to target two or more misfolding proteins in one treatment may be especially valuable for proteostatic disruptions due to genetic, aging, or toxic triggers. Advances in bioinformatics, screening protocols, and especially gene therapy are showing great promise for intrabody/ nanobody treatments of a full range of neurological disorders, including Alzheim...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research

Related Links:

Abstract Macroautophagy/autophagy is implicated in age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson, Huntington and Alzheimer diseases, suggesting that an age-related decline in neuronal autophagy may contribute to the onset of neurodegeneration. We identified a significant decline in the rate of axonal autophagosome formation in neurons cultured from aged mice, accompanied by a striking increase in the accumulation of autophagic structures with aberrant morphologies. Using live-cell microscopy, we identified the specific step in autophagosome formation that becomes i...
Source: Autophagy - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Autophagy Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In this review, biological and chemical knowledge of melatonin, its experimental effects, and the clinical impact on patients with neurological disorders were described. According to all of the beneficial results obtained from experimental and clinical trials, melatonin may have a prophylactic and therapeutic effect on neurological diseases. Strong collaboration between neurologists and health service policy makers is needed to encourage use of melatonin in the patients suffering from neurological diseases. Melatonin may be the solution we have been looking for. PMID: 31718830 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revue Neurologique - Category: Neurology Tags: Rev Neurol (Paris) Source Type: research
Authors: Tabassum R, Jeong NY Abstract Oxidative phosphorylation is a source of energy production by which many cells satisfy their energy requirements. Endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) are by-products of oxidative phosphorylation. ROS are formed due to the inefficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and lead to oxidative stress that affects mitochondrial metabolism. Chronic oxidative stress contributes to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The immediate consequences of oxidat...
Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Molecular and Cellular NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Kevin McAvoy, Hibiki KawamataAbstractMitochondria play essential metabolic roles in neural cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has profound effects on the brain. In primary mitochondrial diseases, mutations that impair specific oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins or OXPHOS assembly factors lead to isolated biochemical defects and a heterogeneous group of clinical phenotypes, including mitochondrial encephalopathies. A broader defect of OXPHOS function, due to mutations in proteins involved in mitochondrial DNA maint...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Delprat B, Crouzier L, Su TP, Maurice T Abstract Calcium exchanges and homeostasis are finely regulated between cellular organelles and in response to physiological signals. Besides ionophores, including voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors, or Store-operated Ca2+ entry, activity of regulatory intracellular proteins finely tune Calcium homeostasis. One of the most intriguing, by its unique nature but also most promising by the therapeutic opportunities it bears, is the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R). The Sig-1R is a chaperone protein residing at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Abstract NAD+ is a pivotal metabolite involved in cellular bioenergetics, genomic stability, mitochondrial homeostasis, adaptive stress responses, and cell survival. Multiple NAD+-dependent enzymes are involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal stress resistance. Here, we review emerging findings that reveal key roles for NAD+ and related metabolites in the adaptation of neurons to a wide range of physiological stressors and in counteracting processes in neurodegenerative diseases, such as those occurring in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Advances in underst...
Source: Cell Metabolism - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Metab Source Type: research
Shulman Liu Target nomination for drug development has been a major challenge in the path to finding a cure for several neurological disorders. Comprehensive transcriptome profiles have revealed brain gene expression changes associated with many neurological disorders, and the functional validation of these changes is a critical next step. Model organisms are a proven approach for the elucidation of disease mechanisms, including screening of gene candidates as therapeutic targets. Frequently, multiple models exist for a given disease, creating a challenge to select the optimal model for validation and functional fo...
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Authors: Kounakis K, Tavernarakis N Abstract The cytoskeleton consists of filamentous protein polymers that form organized structures, contributing to a multitude of cell life aspects. It includes three types of polymers: the actin microfilaments, the microtubules and the intermediate filaments. Decades of research have implicated the cytoskeleton in processes that regulate cellular and organismal aging, as well as neurodegeneration associated with injury or neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or Charcot Marie Tooth diseas...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
aro S Abstract Neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's disease affect a rapidly increasing population worldwide. Although common pathogenic mechanisms have been identified (e.g., protein aggregation or dysfunction, immune response alteration and axonal degeneration), the molecular events underlying timing, dosage, expression, and location of RNA molecules are still not fully elucidated. In particular, the alternative splicing (AS) mechanism is a crucial player in RNA processing and represents a fundamental de...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research
epe Loss of proteome fidelity leads to the accumulation of non-native protein aggregates and oxidatively damaged species: hallmarks of an aged cell. These misfolded and aggregated species are often found, and suggested to be the culpable party, in numerous neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington’s, Parkinson’s, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Alzheimer’s Diseases (AD). Many strategies for therapeutic intervention in proteotoxic pathologies have been put forth; one of the most promising is bolstering the efficacy of the proteasome to restore normal proteostasis. This strate...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
More News: ALS | Alzheimer's | Brain | Gene Therapy | Genetics | Huntington's Disease | Nanotechnology | Neurology | Parkinson's Disease | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Toxicology | Transplants