Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 1017: Measles Encephalitis: Towards New Therapeutics

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 1017: Measles Encephalitis: Towards New Therapeutics Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11111017 Authors: Ferren Horvat Mathieu Measles remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide among vaccine preventable diseases. Recent decline in vaccination coverage resulted in re-emergence of measles outbreaks. Measles virus (MeV) infection causes an acute systemic disease, associated in certain cases with central nervous system (CNS) infection leading to lethal neurological disease. Early following MeV infection some patients develop acute post-infectious measles encephalitis (APME), which is not associated with direct infection of the brain. MeV can also infect the CNS and cause sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in immunocompetent people or measles inclusion-body encephalitis (MIBE) in immunocompromised patients. To date, cellular and molecular mechanisms governing CNS invasion are still poorly understood. Moreover, the known MeV entry receptors are not expressed in the CNS and how MeV enters and spreads in the brain is not fully understood. Different antiviral treatments have been tested and validated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo, mainly in small animal models. Most treatments have high efficacy at preventing infection but their effectiveness after CNS manifestations remains to be evaluated. This review describes MeV neural infection and current most advanced therapeutic approaches potentially applicable to treat MeV CNS infection.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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(This post has been updated with relevant recent information.) The United States was declared free from ongoing measles transmission in 2000. But we may be at risk for joining the UK Greece, Albania, and the Czech Republic, four countries recently stripped of measles elimination status by the World Health Organization. Since the beginning of 2019, more than 1,234 measles cases have been reported in 31 states, with active outbreaks in upstate New York and El Paso, Texas. New York has just declared the end of its yearlong outbreak, which required a massive public health response to control. Minnesota had a major measles outb...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Infectious diseases Prevention Travel health Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: Our study provides data on the largest series of hospitalised adults infected with HIV and co-infected with measles. More severe consequences seemed to occur in hospitalised HIV-positive patients.
Source: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine - Category: African Health Authors: Source Type: research
As a medical student, the place I dreaded most was the ward at the children’s hospital where they kept the chronic ventilator patients. Unlike the other floors, where there was shouting and laughter and tears, and all the commotion and turbulence of youth, here it was dark and lifeless and eerie, with no sound except the hum of the ventilators, and the rattle of air being forced through plastic tubes. It was a place of failure and defeat, the desolate aftermath of some vast and tragic battle. An unexpected aftermath of measles My patient was a teenager who had been in a coma for years. His limbs had stubbornly twiste...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Children's Health Infectious diseases Men's Health Vaccines Women's Health Source Type: blogs
uy PA Abstract As of April 26, 2019, CDC had reported 704 cases of measles in the United States since the beginning of 2019, representing the largest number of cases reported in the country in a single year since 1994, when 963 cases occurred, and since measles was declared eliminated* in 2000 (1,2). Measles is a highly contagious, acute viral illness characterized by fever and a maculopapular rash; complications include pneumonia, encephalitis, and death. Among the 704 cases, 503 (71%) were in unvaccinated persons and 689 (98%) occurred in U.S. residents. Overall, 66 (9%) patients were hospitalized. Thirteen outb...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of a...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
A flight attendant has reportedly fallen into a “deep coma” after contracting measles, according to health authorities. The 43-year-old female El Al Airlines flight attendant was admitted to a hospital after coming down with a fever on March 31, CBS News reports. Her condition has worsened since then, and she now has encephalitis, or brain inflammation, and is breathing with the assistance of a respirator at Israel’s Meir Medical Center, according to CNN. Israeli health officials said the woman may have been infected with measles in New York, Israel or a flight between the two locations, both of which are...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Infectious Disease Source Type: news
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
MMR vaccine rates in two areas in the Pacific Northwest, which has been at the epicenter of a measles outbreak, are surging as people rush to protect themselves and their children from the virus. In Clark County, Washington – where about 50 people have been infected since the outbreak started – more than 6 times as many people were vaccinated for measles from January 13 to February 2 compared to the same period last year, according to a spokesperson for Washington State Department of Health. The rush to receive the MMR vaccine – which inoculates the recipient from measles, mumps and rubella – in Cla...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized health onetime washington Source Type: news
We are in the midst of a measles outbreak here in the US, with cases being reported in New York City, New York state, and Washington state. In 2018, preliminary numbers indicate that there were 372 cases of measles — more than triple the 120 cases in all of 2017 — and already 79 cases in the first month of 2019 alone. Here are four things that everyone needs to know about measles. Measles is highly contagious This is a point that can’t be stressed enough. A full 90% of unvaccinated people exposed to the virus will catch it. And if you think that just staying away from sick people will do the trick, think ...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Children's Health Infectious diseases Parenting Vaccines Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, we demonstrated a simple generation-dependent model that was able to adequately capture an observed transmission pattern of the measles outbreak in Japan, 2018. The proposed model also helped predict the future incidence and evaluate public health control measures. Polishing the forecasting model further, we can achieve an eventual routine forecast and evaluation the outbreaks while maintaining the model structure as simple as possible. Competing Interests The authors declare no competing interests. Data Availability The code snippets used for simulations and generation of figures as well as the epidemiolo...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
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