Extracellular vesicles as an emerging tool for the early detection of Alzheimer’s disease

Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Tao-Ran Li, Xiao-Ni Wang, Can Sheng, Yu-Xia Li, Frederic Zhen-Tao Li, Yu Sun, Ying HanAbstractAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a series of interacting pathophysiological cascades, including the aggregation of β-amyloid plaques and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles derived from hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. AD is the cause of approximately 70% of dementia, an irreversible and untreatable syndrome at its late stage. Hence, more efforts should be devoted to identifying at-risk or preclinical AD populations for early intervention and the improved design of drug trials. The exosome, a nanoscale subtype of extracellular vesicle that serves as a cell-to-cell communication messenger, is an emerging liquid biopsy tool for various diseases including AD. Recently, it has been discovered that brain-derived exosomes can flow through the blood-brain barrier to the peripheral blood, containing important protein and nucleic acid biomarkers that are associated with the pathogenesis and progression of AD. Other reports showed a strong involvement of exosomes in synaptic function, insulin resistance, and neuroinflammation, among others. Here, we summarize those studies and assess the value of exosomes as an emerging tool for the early detection of AD in conjunction with the current clinical diagnosis paradigm.
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Related Links:

Publication date: Available online 30 May 2020Source: Brain StimulationAuthor(s): Francesco Di Lorenzo, Caterina Motta, Elias Paolo Casula, Sonia Bonnì, Martina Assogna, Carlo Caltagirone, Alessandro Martorana, Giacomo Koch
Source: Brain Stimulation - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
DEMENTIA symptoms can be difficult to spot in its early stages, although there are a number of warning signs to look out for - including memory loss. These are the five most common early symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Should you speak to a doctor about your dementia risk?
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Authors: Wang Z, Shen L, Wang Y, Huang S Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is considered the most common type of dementia worldwide. The aim of the present study was to identify key microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) and mRNAs affecting the pathogenesis of AD, which may be developed as promising biomarkers for the early diagnosis or targeted therapy of patients with AD. Integrative analysis was performed on 12 representative miRNA datasets and three mRNA datasets of the blood from patients with AD, in order to identify differentially expressed (DE)miRNAs and DEmRNAs. Subsequen...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the CAIDE dementia risk score is associated with cortical thickness and cognitive function at midlife in a low-risk population. These data provide insight into subclinical structural and functional changes occurring during midlife associated with future risk for the development of dementia. PMID: 32467426 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research
Authors: Polychronidou E, Avramouli A, Vlamos P Abstract Misfolded proteins result when a protein follows the wrong folding pathway. Accumulation of misfolded proteins can cause disorders, known as amyloid diseases. Unfortunately, some of them are very common. The most prevalent one is Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder and the commonest form of dementia. The current study aims to assess the impact of somatic mutations in PSEN1 gene. The said mutations are the most common cause of familial Alzheimer's disease. As protein functionality can be affected by mutations, the study of ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
In this study, the EEOS treatment in hyperhomocysteinemic rats has showed significant improvement in spatial learning and working memory performance. The EEOS treatment further increased nitric oxide bioavailability and significantly altered all serum and brain biochemical parameters in a dose-dependent manner. The docking analysis revealed that among all the phytoconstituents of Ocimum sanctum compound (IX), molludistin has showed good inhibitory activity against S-adenosyl homocysteine, thus preventing homocysteine formation and may be responsible for potential effects of EEOS against HHcy-induced VaD. From our results, ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Robakis NK Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia caused by severe neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and neocortical regions of the brain. In addition to neurodegeneration, AD brains contain high levels of amyloid plaques (APs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) which are used as neuropathological hallmarks of the disorder. Despite intense research efforts, the mechanism(s) of the AD neurodegeneration are imperfectly understood, hampering efforts for the development of efficient therapeutics. Furthermore, failure of clinical trials to benefit AD patients suggests that AD h...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
The objective of this review study is to highlight the effectiveness of brief cognitive tests (BCT) in the case of dementia and Alzheimer's disease screening. Authors' future work will focus on the application of BCT in MCI diagnosis and evaluation. PMID: 32468467 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Salis C, Papageorgiou L, Papakonstantinou E, Hagidimitriou M, Vlachakis D Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases lead to the death of nerve cells in the brain or the spinal cord. A wide range of diseases are included within the group of neurodegenerative disorders, with the most common ones being dementia, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. Millions of older people are suffering from such pathologies. The global increase of life expectancy unavoidably leads to a consequent increase in the number of people who will be at some degree affected by neurodegenerative-related diseases. At this moment, there is n...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Authors: Newman K Abstract Novel multimodal sensing study that has been installed and tested in a geriatric psychiatry inpatient unit is reviewed. Perspectives and experiences of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are also examined. Further, the Spare a Thought for Dementia Through the Your Story My Story campaign, a project that seeks to amplify empowering stories from persons living with dementia and their friends and family carers in order to combat stigma and show carers that they are not alone in their journeys, is also discussed. PMID: 32468459 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
More News: Brain | Dementia | Geriatrics | Insulin | Nanotechnology | Neurology | Study