Effectiveness of single-dose rifampicin after BCG vaccination to prevent leprosy in close contacts of patients with newly diagnosed leprosy: A cluster randomized controlled trial

The global number of new leprosy cases has remained stable over the last decade (Anonymous, 2017a), indicating that transmission of Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, is ongoing in many endemic countries. The basic intervention in leprosy control is multidrug therapy (MDT), but this appears insufficient to decrease new cases numbers and achieve the World Health Organization (WHO) target of reducing the burden of leprosy (Anonymous, 2018).
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research

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Mr Yohei Sasakawa, chairman of the Nippon Foundation and Sasakawa Health Foundation and WHO Goodwill ambassador. Credit : Crystal Orderson / IPSBy Rafiqul Islam and Crystal OrdersonDHAKA, Bangladesh, Dec 11 2019 (IPS) Leprosy is not a curse but should be detected and treated early, Bangladeshi Prime Minister, Sheikh Hasina, has told delegates at a gathering in her country’s capital to discuss the elimination of the disease. “In the past, it was thought that leprosy was a curse. But it was not a curse at all. The disease is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium Leprae). We should fight it through research,” H...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Asia-Pacific Conferences Development & Aid Featured Headlines Health Human Rights Poverty & SDGs TerraViva United Nations Women's Health National Leprosy Conference - Dhaka 2019 Source Type: news
Leprosy is a neglected disease that poses a significant challenge to public health in Uganda. The disease is endemic in Uganda, with 40% of the districts in the country affected in 2016, when 42 out of 112 dis...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Abstract In the Philippines, ten NTDs are prevalent, but only six namely LF, schistosomiasis, STH, food-borne trematodiases, rabies and leprosy are considered to be of public health importance. The 81 provinces in the country are endemic for at least one of these NTDs. Others may be endemic for two or even more of these diseases. Since 2000, after the Philippines accepted and implemented the WHO guidelines for NTDs prevention, control and elimination, significant progress has been achieved in reducing the magnitude of NTDs endemic in the country". Since 2009, out of 46 filariasis-endemic provinces, the number...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Conclusions: Leprosy mortality in the Brazilian North and Northeast is expressive and persistent, with a focal pattern of distribution in more vulnerable territories and populations. Comprehensive leprosy care must be strengthened in the Unified Health System in these regions. PMID: 31768181 [PubMed]
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
Abstract Serological tests for subclinical Mycobacterium leprae infection based on antibodies to phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) and leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1 (LID-1) have not been compared in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. PGL-1 seropositivity by ELISA was 6.0 % (21/350) in HIV-infected compared with 29.1 % (102/350) in HIV-uninfected individuals (p 
Source: Immunobiology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research
DiscussionEven in this previously highly VL endemic area, PKDL is a rare condition. Nevertheless, even a single case can trigger a new VL outbreak. Leprosy is also a rare disease, but current prevalence is over 17 times the elimination threshold proclaimed by WHO. Both diseases require continued surveillance. Active case finding for leprosy can be recommended among household members and close neighbors of leprosy patients but would not be feasible for entire populations. Periodic skin camps may be a feasible and affordable alternative.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that STNPCR or SYBRGreen PCR (131-bp and 101-bp fragment amplification, respectively) for RLEP using FFPE specimens performs better as a diagnostic test and for monitoring response to MDT than does simple PCR based on 372-bp fragment amplification. Additionally, STNPCR showed increased sensitivity for PB diagnosis using FFPE specimens, which can be transferred remotely or retrieved from previous leprosy patients.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe results suggest that control of leprosy would be achieved most rapidly with a combination of intensive population-based and household chemoprophylaxis. These findings may be generalisable to other countries where crowding places social contacts as well as household contacts of cases at risk of developing leprosy.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Semin Neurol 2019; 39: 462-471 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1687884Leprosy is a challenging international health concern. Despite tremendous efforts in reducing worldwide disease prevalence in the past decades, some countries remain endemic and are plagued by high levels of disability. The neurological complications of leprosy are varied and complex, with current research focused on evaluating tools for earlier diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in resource-limited countries. While treatment with multidrug therapy is highly effective, active research aims to simplify regimens to improve adherence, minimize adverse effects, and pre...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: to analyze the temporal trend and epidemiological patterns of leprosy indicators in Sobral, a municipality countryside of the state of Ceará, from 2001 to 2016. METHOD: a time series study based on data from the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System. The time trend analysis was performed using the join point regression model. RESULTS: There were 2,220 new cases of leprosy in Sobral from 2001 to 2016. Of these, 158 (7.2%) in children younger than 15 years of age, the proportion of new male cases was 52.8% (1,162), cases with grade 2 were 7.0% (156), and proporti...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Rev Bras Enferm Source Type: research
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