Yellow Fever in Travelers

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis decade has seen a resurgence of yellow fever (YF) that has also affected travelers with a record number of international travelers infected by YF virus including the first documented importation of YF into Asia.Recent FindingsThe recent resurgence of YF has been attributed largely to sub-optimal vaccination coverage along with waning population-level immunity. New lessons have been learnt with regard to the clinical management of severe YF as a result of the Brazilian outbreak. With increasing YF cases in travelers, travel medicine providers need to familiarize themselves with the diagnosis and clinical management of severe YF. Prevention remains the mainstay, and all efforts need to be taken that travelers do not circumvent the International Health Regulations. More than 80  years of experience with YF vaccine reinforce the generally acceptable safety profile of YF vaccine but highlight the unique serious adverse events of viscerotropic and neurotropic disease, in particular in first-time vaccinees.SummaryContinued physician and traveler education regarding the risks and benefits of YF vaccination is needed, with an urgent need to better define “significant and unavoidable risk” for improved benefit-risk assessments.
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs research efforts have advanced to understand the pathophysiology of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) and other epidemic viral infections and develop medical countermeasures such as vaccines, pregnant women have remained an underexamined subgroup. To better understand the implications of future outbreaks of VHF for pregnant women amidst an evolving vaccine landscape, we examine three pathogens —yellow fever, Ebola, and Lassa fever—each with different levels of evidence and understanding of disease in pregnancy and at varying stages of vaccine development.Recent FindingsThere are very li...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Zhimin Chen, Kaihui Liu, Xiuxiang Liu, Yijun LouAbstractThe control strategies of emergency infectious diseases are constrained by limited medical resources. The fractional dose vaccination strategy as one of feasible strategies was proposed in response to global shortages of vaccine stockpiles. Although a variety of epidemic models have been developed under the circumstances of limited resources in treatment, few models particularly investigated vaccination strategies in resource-limited settings. In this paper, we develop ...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Lassa fever outbreaks West Africa have caused up to 10,000 deaths annually. Primary infection occurs from contact with Lassa virus-infected rodents and exposure to their excreta, blood, or meat. Incubation takes 2 to 21  days. Symptoms are difficult to distinguish from malaria, typhoid, dengue, yellow fever, and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic, to mild, to severe fulminant disease. Ribavirin can improve outcomes. Overall mortality is between 1% and 15%. Lassa fever s hould be considered in the differential diagnosis with travel to West Africa. There is an urgent need for...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS This study contributed to the knowledge on the profile of confirmed cases of high severity yellow fever. The main factors associated with death were changes in renal excretion and elevated serum transaminases, especially ALT. High lethality emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and treatment, and the importance of increasing vaccination coverage.RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever o perfil cl ínico-epidemiológico dos casos confirmados de febre amarela internados em hospital geral de referência para doenças infecciosas no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, de 11 de março de 2017 a 15 de ...
Source: Revista de Saude Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
hard J.P. Brown Yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen, transmitted by mosquito vectors to humans from primate reservoirs. Sporadic outbreaks of YFV occur in endemic tropical regions, causing a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) associated with high mortality rates. Despite a highly effective vaccine, no antiviral treatments currently exist. Therefore, YFV represents a neglected tropical disease and is chronically understudied, with many aspects of YFV biology incompletely defined including host range, host–virus interactions and correlates of host immunity and pathogenicity. In this a...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
On 29 August 2019, a suspected yellow fever case was reported from Kano state with a travel history to Yankari game reserve, Alkaleri Local Government Area (LGA), Bauchi state, Nigeria. From 29 August through 22 September 2019, Nigeria reported an outbreak of yellow fever with an epi-centre in the Yankari game reserve of Alkaleri LGA, Bauchi state. According to Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), 231 suspected cases have been reported in four states including Bauchi (110), Borno (109), Gombe (10), and Kano (2), of which there have been 13 presumptive positive by IgM testing and 24 cases positive by reverse-transcrip...
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: news Source Type: news
[WHO] In response to an outbreak of Yellow Fever in Bauchi State, Governor Senator Bala Mohammed on 12 September 2019 initiated a vaccination campaign against the disease in Alkaleri Local Government Area (LGA).
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
[CAJ News] Abuja -Nigeria has embarked on a massive vaccination campaign following the death of at least 20 people from yellow fever southeast of the country.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
[Premium Times] The Nigerian government has begun a yellow fever reactive vaccination campaign in three states to contain an outbreak of the disease in Ebonyi State in August.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
Purpose of review Climate change, deforestation, urbanization, and increased population mobility have made the risk of large outbreaks of yellow fever more likely than ever. Yellow fever vaccine production barely meets demands. In this review, we address the causes of the recent yellow fever outbreaks, why fractional dose yellow fever vaccination works, the role of virus neutralizing antibodies in the protection against yellow fever, and the need for revaccination. Recent findings Human activities have profoundly changed the epidemiology of yellow fever. The excess of infectious viral particles in routine yellow fever...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: TROPICAL AND TRAVEL-ASSOCIATED DISEASES: Edited by Christina Coyle Source Type: research
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