Yellow Fever in Travelers

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis decade has seen a resurgence of yellow fever (YF) that has also affected travelers with a record number of international travelers infected by YF virus including the first documented importation of YF into Asia.Recent FindingsThe recent resurgence of YF has been attributed largely to sub-optimal vaccination coverage along with waning population-level immunity. New lessons have been learnt with regard to the clinical management of severe YF as a result of the Brazilian outbreak. With increasing YF cases in travelers, travel medicine providers need to familiarize themselves with the diagnosis and clinical management of severe YF. Prevention remains the mainstay, and all efforts need to be taken that travelers do not circumvent the International Health Regulations. More than 80  years of experience with YF vaccine reinforce the generally acceptable safety profile of YF vaccine but highlight the unique serious adverse events of viscerotropic and neurotropic disease, in particular in first-time vaccinees.SummaryContinued physician and traveler education regarding the risks and benefits of YF vaccination is needed, with an urgent need to better define “significant and unavoidable risk” for improved benefit-risk assessments.
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of ReviewAt the turn of the nineteenth century, yellow fever (YF) was considered the most dangerous infectious disease with high case fatality. Subsequent, mass vaccination campaigns coupled with widespread elimination of the YF mosquito vector significantly decreased YF cases and reduced outbreaks to the tropical and subtropical forested regions of Africa and South America.Recent FindingsHowever, recent (2016) large outbreaks in Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and South-Eastern Brazil, where previously had been demarcated as low-risk regions, have highlighted the possibility of a rapidly changi...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article. The post How Deforestation Helps Deadly Viruses Jump from Animals to Humans appeared first on Inter Press Service.
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Environment Global Headlines Health TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news
On 15 April 2020, WHO received information regarding a confirmed case of yellow fever in Magandi village, Tchibanga city in Nyanga Province of southern Gabon, 590 km from the capital, Libreville. The case is an 83-year-old male with no known vaccination history for yellow fever. He had onset of symptoms on 30 January 2020 and presented to a health facility on 2 February 2020 with abdominal pain and jaundice. Between 2 February and 9 April, he consulted the Urban Health Centre in Tchibanga, the Christian Alliance Hospital in Bongolo and the University hospital in the capital Libreville where the case received anti-malarial ...
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: news Source Type: news
On 20 April 2020, WHO received information regarding a confirmed yellow fever case in Galangashie health area, located 30 km from Mango village, Oti district, Savanes region in the northern part of Togo. The case is a 55-year-old woman with no vaccination history for yellow fever. She had onset of symptoms on 31 January 2020 and presented to a health facility on 3 February 2020 with fever and aches. The following day she developed jaundice and a blood sample was taken. On 7 February , the blood sample was transported to the national laboratory. On 10 February , the sample from the case was received at the national laborato...
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: news Source Type: news
This study showed that conflicting information about vaccine safety led to concern about miscarriage. Furthermore, it was believed that vaccination during gestation would concurrently immunize the fetus by transplacental antibody transfer. Consultation of health workers at the vaccination site led to diverse recommendations. When vaccinating pregnant women, clear health communication is crucial. Vaccine recommendations should be obeyed, and health workers should be trained to address emerging vaccine concerns. Pregnant women should be informed that a booster dose is recommended to achieve lifelong immunity. After pregnancy...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
A young boy in Pakistan receives an oral polio vaccine (OPV). Credit: Ashfaq Yusufzai/IPSBy Laura MackenzieMay 6 2020 (IPS) Interruptions to vaccination programmes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic could result in new waves of measles or polio outbreaks, health experts warn. A growing number of one-off immunisation campaigns and national routine vaccine introductions are being delayed amid social distancing and other measures to curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2, leaving millions unprotected. With both preventive campaigns and routine immunisations impacted, “we’ll have an increasing number of children who will becom...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Global Headlines Health TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news
CONCLUSION: The amotosalen/UVA PR system inactivated high titers of infectious YFV-17D in PC. This PR technology could reduce the risk of YFV TTI and help secure PC supplies in areas experiencing YFV outbreaks where massive vaccination campaigns are required. PMID: 31957887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Transfusion - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Transfusion Source Type: research
From 3 November through 8 December 2019, three laboratory confirmed cases of yellow fever including two deaths (case fatality rate = 67%) were detected through the national surveillance system in Mali. The first case-patient was a 15-year-old girl from a village in Kati district, Koulikoro region, Mali. The second and third case were in 17 and 25-year-old men, nationals from Cote d'Ivoire, living in the district of Bouguimi, Sikasso region, Mali. All three cases tested positive for yellow fever by Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on 3 December 2019 at Institute Pasteur Dak...
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: news Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the use of fractional dosing as a strategy for mitigating vaccine shortages. The strategy should be specifically considered for individuals who are young, immuno-competent and well nourished. PMID: 31859201 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs research efforts have advanced to understand the pathophysiology of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) and other epidemic viral infections and develop medical countermeasures such as vaccines, pregnant women have remained an underexamined subgroup. To better understand the implications of future outbreaks of VHF for pregnant women amidst an evolving vaccine landscape, we examine three pathogens —yellow fever, Ebola, and Lassa fever—each with different levels of evidence and understanding of disease in pregnancy and at varying stages of vaccine development.Recent FindingsThere are very li...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
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