Reevaluation of the efficacy of favipiravir against rabies virus using in vivo imaging analysis

Publication date: Available online 28 October 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Kentaro Yamada, Kazuko Noguchi, Kazunori Kimitsuki, Ryo Kaimori, Nobuo Saito, Takashi Komeno, Nozomi Nakajima, Yousuke Furuta, Akira NishizonoAbstractRabies virus (RABV) is a highly neurotropic virus and the causative agent of rabies, an encephalitis with an almost 100% case-fatality rate that remains incurable after the onset of symptoms. Favipiravir (T-705), a broad-spectrum antiviral drug against RNA viruses, has been shown to be effective against RABV in vitro but ineffective in vivo. We hypothesized that favipiravir is effective in infected mice when RABV replicates in the peripheral tissues/nerves but not after virus neuroinvasion. We attempted to clarify this point in this study using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. We generated a recombinant RABV from the field isolate 1088, which expressed red firefly luciferase (1088/RFLuc). This allowed semiquantitative detection and monitoring of primary replication at the inoculation site and viral spread in the central nervous system (CNS) in the same mice. Bioluminescence imaging revealed that favipiravir (300 mg/kg/day) treatment commencing 1 h after intramuscular inoculation of RABV efficiently suppressed viral replication at the inoculation site and the subsequent replication in the CNS. However, virus replication in the CNS was not inhibited when the treatment began 2 days after inoculation. We also found that higher doses (600 or 90...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research

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With a planned annual capacity of 585 million, the project proposed to make pentavalent, or five-in-one, combination vaccine, BCG vaccine, and vaccines to prevent measles, hepatitis B, human rabies, Hib (haemophilus influenzae type b) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) in the first phase, which was to be commissioned by 2010.
Source: The Economic Times - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
ave;s Leblond Pierre Tritz Neurological disorders represent an important sanitary and economic threat for the equine industry worldwide. Among nervous diseases, viral encephalitis is of growing concern, due to the emergence of arboviruses and to the high contagiosity of herpesvirus-infected horses. The nature, severity and duration of the clinical signs could be different depending on the etiological agent and its virulence. However, definite diagnosis generally requires the implementation of combinations of direct and/or indirect screening assays in specialized laboratories. The equine practitioner, involved in a mi...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
AbstractThe role of vaccination in the development of Guillain-Barr é syndrome (GBS) is controversial, although cases of GBS have been reported following a wide range of vaccines. A nested case–control study was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015 in three Chinese cities. Four controls were matched to a case by gender, age, address and index date. An independent expert committee validated the diagnoses of cases and controls according to the Brighton Collaboration GBS case definition. Data on vaccinations were obtained from computerized vaccination records. Causal relations were assessed by conditi...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
This article provides information on these and other travel vaccinations against hepatitis A, typhoid fever, rabies, Japanese encephalitis and cholera.Yellow fever endemic areas are located in Africa and in South America; there is no yellow fever in Asia. The meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Additionally, it is recommended for travellers visiting the African "meningitis belt" during the dry season. A polio booster is required for countries with endemic wild-type polio virus (WPV) or circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV).Hepatitis A is a common vaccine-prev...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
Abstract Rabies virus (RABV) is a highly neurotropic virus and the causative agent of rabies, an encephalitis with an almost 100% case-fatality rate that remains incurable after the onset of symptoms. Favipiravir (T-705), a broad-spectrum antiviral drug against RNA viruses, has been shown to be effective against RABV in vitro but ineffective in vivo. We hypothesized that favipiravir is effective in infected mice when RABV replicates in the peripheral tissues/nerves but not after virus neuroinvasion. We attempted to clarify this point in this study using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. We generated a recombinant R...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Discussion Dengue is an important arboviral infection that affects about 40% of the world population. It is found mainly in topical and subtropical areas of the world mainly in developing countries but it range is spreading including the United States. A review of common arboviruses can be found here. It is a flaviavirus with 4 distinct serotypes named DENV-1 through DENV-4 and is spread by A. aegypti a day biting mosquito. Infection with one serotype confers immunity to that serotype but not the others. It does offer some protection for cross-infection but this only lasts a few months. Incubation period is 3-14 days with ...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Chandrakant M Bokade, Vishal S Gajimwar, Rajkumar M Meshram, Swapnil B WathoreAnnals of Indian Academy of Neurology 2019 22(3):319-321 Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease transmitted primarily by dogs, cats, and bats, which accounts for approximately 59,000 deaths globally per year. An 8-year-old boy from rural central India developed an atypical presentation of rabies following a street dog bite in spite of receiving postexposure prophylaxis and proper care of Category III wounds. A diagnosis of rabies was made on the basis of clinical background, neuroimaging finding, excess antibody titer, detection of rabies viral anti...
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Zoé Lama, Yves Gaudin, Danielle Blondel, Cécile Lagaudriere-GesbertAbstractRabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans and animals and still kills up to 59,000 people worldwide every year. To date, only preventive or post-exposure vaccination protects against the disease but therapeutics are missing. After screening a library of 80 kinases inhibitors, we identified two compounds as potent inhibitors of RABV infection: Tyrphostin 9 and Rottlerin. Mechanism of action studies show that both i...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans and animals and still kills up to 59,000 people worldwide every year. To date, only preventive or post-exposure vaccination protects against the disease but therapeutics are missing. After screening a library of 80 kinases inhibitors, we identified two compounds as potent inhibitors of RABV infection: Tyrphostin 9 and Rottlerin. Mechanism of action studies show that both inhibitors interfere with an early step of viral cycle and can prevent viral replication. In presence of Tyrphostin 9, the viral entry through endocytosis...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
In this study, we standardized a real-time quantitative RT-PCR duplex assay to be used during intermediate stages of the vaccine production. This assay was done for the quantification of vaccine strain rabies virus, targeting rabies nucleoprotein, and β-actin mRNA of BHK-21 cells as an internal endogenous control. The results showed specific amplification, with the analytical sensitivity ranged from 101 to 106 TCID50/mL with high repeatability rate for the quantification of rabies virus in inactivated vaccine samples. Global organizations are engaged to develop new approaches to determine viable residual virus, and th...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
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