Stopping live vaccines after disease eradication may increase mortality.

Stopping live vaccines after disease eradication may increase mortality. Vaccine. 2019 Oct 21;: Authors: Aaby P, Benn CS Abstract Several live vaccines may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) reducing mortality more than can be explained by the prevention of the target infection, a phenomenon which has been linked to innate immune training. Most randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and measles vaccine (MV) have shown a large reduction in mortality that must have been at least partly nonspecific because it was much larger than the reduction explained by prevention of the target disease. Hence, stopping a live vaccine after disease-eradication could have negative health effects if the potential beneficial NSEs are not considered. We reviewed one eradicated disease, smallpox, and two infections likely to be eradicated in coming decades, polio and measles. No study was made of unintended effects of stopping smallpox vaccination when it happened in 1980. We have subsequently documented in both Guinea-Bissau and Denmark that smallpox-vaccinated individuals continued to have a survival advantage long after smallpox had been eradicated. The few studies which have examined the effect of OPV on survival all suggest strong beneficial NSEs; in RCTs, OPV compared with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) has been associated with non-specific reductions in morbidity. RCTs, natural experiments and observational studies have found strong be...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

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(American Chemical Society) Vaccines have curtailed the spread of several infectious diseases, such as smallpox, polio and measles. However, vaccines against some diseases, including HIV-1, influenza and malaria, don't work very well, and one reason could be the timing of antigen and adjuvant presentation to the immune system. Now, researchers reporting inACS Central Science developed an injectable hydrogel that allows sustained release of vaccine components, increasing the potency, quality and duration of immune responses in mice.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article. The post Approval of a Coronavirus Vaccine Would Be Just the Beginning – Huge Production Challenges Could Cause Long Delays appeared first on Inter Press Service.
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Global Headlines Health TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news
As the world reels from illnesses and deaths due to COVID-19, the race is on for a safe, effective, long-lasting vaccine to help the body block the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The three vaccine approaches discussed here are among the first to be tested clinically in the United States. How vaccines induce immunity: The starting line In 1796, in a pastoral corner of England, and during a far more feudal and ethically less enlightened time, Edward Jenner, an English country surgeon, inoculated James Phipps, his gardener’s eight-year-old son, with cowpox pustules obtained from the arm of a milkmaid. It was widely belie...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Coronavirus and COVID-19 Health Infectious diseases Vaccines Source Type: blogs
From 2018-2019, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation gave more money to the World Health Organization than any entity except the U.S. government. With President Donald Trump cutting ties to the international health agency in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Gates Foundation’s work has come into sharper relief than ever. Co-chair Bill Gates announced at the Global Vaccine Summit on June 4 that it will give $1.6 billion over five years to the Vaccine Alliance (GAVI), to help ensure that people around the world have access to vaccines, regardless of income. The Gates Foundation in 1999 pledged $750 million to he...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Source Type: news
This week ’s Global Vaccine Summit comes at a crucial point in history. Governments must not miss their chance to save livesCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageGro Harlem Brundtland is former director-general of the World Health OrganizationElizabeth Cousens is president of the UN FoundationGoogle any list of the most successful public health interventions of this century or the last, and vaccines will be at the very top. Infectious diseases such as smallpox, measles, diphtheria and pertussis (whooping cough) were once prevalent and killed indiscriminately. Smallpox is now eradicated, po...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Vaccines and immunisation Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Medical research Science World Health Organization Polio World news Source Type: news
Here’s betting you wouldn’t want anyone blowing smallpox scabs up your nose. But you might feel differently if you lived in 15th century China. Long ago, the Chinese recognized that people who had contracted smallpox once were immune to reinfection. They came up with the idea of preserving scabs from individuals who had suffered mild cases, drying them out, crushing them to a powder and blowing them up the nostril. For boys it was the right nostril, for girls it was the left because, well, 15th century. That is how the story of vaccines usually begins, though that version is decidedly incomplete. For one thing,...
Source: TIME: Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Explainer health Source Type: news
Authors: Schlipköter U, Flahault A Abstract The past two centuries have seen enormous achievements in control of infectious diseases, previously the leading cause of death, in large measure due to sanitation and food safety, vaccines, antibiotics and improved nutrition. This has led people to put their faith in the notion that medical science would succeed in overcoming the remaining obstacles. Vaccination has eradicated smallpox, nearly eradicated poliomyelitis and greatly reduced many other highly dangerous infections such as diphtheria, tetanus and measles. New diseases such as HIV and new forms of influenz...
Source: Public Health Reviews - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rev Source Type: research
It's too soon to know for sure how the tale of the novel coronavirus will play out,but at this point we have a pretty good idea. A stipulation in both of the scenarios at the linked essay is that yeah, it gets loose into the wild and eventually can show up anywhere in the world. I think that's pretty much definitely going to happen if it hasn't already.Scenario number 1, and most likely, in my view, it will just be one more virus that causes what amounts to a common cold and in a few people who are otherwise debilitated goes on to be complicated by pneumonia. In that case, for a year or two it will circulate as a novel vir...
Source: Stayin' Alive - Category: American Health Source Type: blogs
It may be possible to eradicate malaria—one of history’s deadliest diseases—from the planet by 2050, according to a coalition of 41 leading scientists, economists and health-policy experts writing in the Lancet. “Malaria is one of the oldest and deadliest diseases of humankind,” says Sir Richard Feachem, one of the report’s authors and co-chair of the Lancet commission on malaria eradication. “If we, humankind, were to take on this challenge and eradicate malaria by 2050, it would be an achievement of historic proportions. There would be nothing quite like it.” Malaria, a mos...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Infectious Disease onetime Source Type: news
A set of  measles outbreaks in Washington state, New York City, and elsewhere, is making national headlines and frightening parents around the United States. Counter-intuitively, measles making the news is a sign of progress. Not long ago, measles was so common that it was simply not newsworthy. Suffer ing from the extremely infectious disease, which causes spotty rashes and a hacking cough, was widespread and often deadly.It was once the case that even royalty fell victim to diseases now easily preventable with routine shots given during childhood.  Measles killed the un-vaccin...
Source: Cato-at-liberty - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: blogs
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