Recommended hospital preparations for future cases and outbreaks of novel influenza viruses.

This article reviews the risk factors of nosocomial influenza outbreaks and discusses clinical, diagnostic, and treatment aspects of seasonal and avian influenza to facilitate hospital preparations for future influenza outbreaks. Literature search was conducted through PubMed of relevant peer-reviewed full papers in English journals with inclusion of relevant publications by the WHO and US CDC. Expert opinion: Accurate and rapid identification of an influenza outbreak is important to facilitate patient care and prevent nosocomial transmission. Timely treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) for adults hospitalized with severe influenza is associated with lower mortality and better clinical outcomes. Baloxavir, a polymerase endonuclease inhibitor, offers a new treatment alternative and its role in combination with NAI for treatment of severe influenza is being investigated. High-dose systemic corticosteroids are associated with worse outcomes in patients with severe influenza. It is important to develop more effective antiviral and immuno-modulating therapies for treatment of influenza infections. PMID: 31648548 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research

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A recent study in this journal compared codon usage among NA subtypes (N1, N2, N6, and N8)  of H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIVs) and suggested that codon usage in N1 subtype is better adapted to its host than the epidemic NA subtypes (N6 and N8), which had fewer number of human cases compared to the N1 subtype.1 To date, there are 18 known HA subtypes (H1-H18) and 11 known NA subtypes (N1-N11)2. However, only N1 and N2 subtypes have been reported to cause pandemics (H1N1 for the 1918 and 2009 pandemics; H2N2 for the 1957 pandemic; and H3N2 for the 1968 pandemic) or seasonal outbreaks in humans3.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
We read with interest the recent communication by Guo et al. concerning avian influenza virus pathogenicity.1 Swine has been considered an intermediate host for avian influenza viruses to adapt to humans. Cross-species transmissions caused by novel reassortant swine-originate influenza A virus (S-OIV) are of particular concern after the 2009 pandemic caused by pdH1N1 virus and epidemic outbreaks caused by H3N2v.2,3 The genesis of these viruses shows that reassortant is the major driving force for producing highly infectious variants.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Conclusions: Human challenge studies and systems biology approaches are important tools that should be used in concert to advance our understanding of influenza infection and provide targets for novel therapeutics and immunizations. Introduction Although influenza virus was recognized as an important pathogen over a century ago, influenza continues to cause a significant burden of disease. In the United States alone, it's estimated that in the 2017–2018 season there were 959,000 hospitalizations related to influenza illness, and 79,400 deaths (CDC, 2018). Worldwide, WHO estimates that annual influenza...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, road transport and socioeconomic status had significant impacts and should be considered for the prevention and control of future pandemics.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ahesh Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are a major cause of respiratory illness and are responsible for yearly epidemics associated with more than 500,000 annual deaths globally. Novel IAVs may cause pandemic outbreaks and zoonotic infections with, for example, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of the H5N1 and H7N9 subtypes, which pose a threat to public health. Treatment options are limited and emergence of strains resistant to antiviral drugs jeopardize this even further. Like all viruses, IAVs depend on host factors for every step of the virus replication cycle. Host kinases link multiple signaling pathways ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Authors: Mandil A, Bresee J, Tageldin MA, Azad TM, Khan W Abstract Infectious diseases continue to represent a significant threat to global health security, particularly in the context of increasing globalization, interconnectedness and interdependence. Chief among such threats are influenza viruses and other respiratory pathogens, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), because of their risk of high transmissibility and acuity of illness. Annual epidemics of seasonal influenza cause an estimated 3-5 million cases of severe illness and more than 500 000 deaths, with the prospect of pandemic...
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research
Influenza has been impacting public health on a global scale since the beginning of recorded history. Influenza, also known as the “flu,” has numerous organizations committed to public health research, developing vaccines, and educating on best practices to prepare for the upcoming flu season. By gaining an understanding of the flu through history, virology, and how it impacts our society, we can have a better appreciation for the commitment that’s involved with combating the flu. What Is Influenza (and What’s Not)? The eyes of an epidemiologist can twitch for a variety of reasons, one of them being...
Source: JEMS Special Topics - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Exclusive Articles Operations Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Stephen M. Kissler, Julia R. Gog, Cécile Viboud, Vivek Charu, Ottar N. Bjørnstad, Lone Simonsen, Bryan T. GrenfellAbstractA key issue in infectious disease epidemiology is to identify and predict geographic sites of epidemic establishment that contribute to onward spread, especially in the context of invasion waves of emerging pathogens. Conventional wisdom suggests that these sites are likely to be in densely-populated, well-connected areas. For pandemic influenza, however, epidemiological data have not been available at a fine eno...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Since March 2013, when the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection was first detected in humans, a total of 1567 laboratory-confirmed human cases, including at least 615 deaths1, have been reported to WHO (Figure 1) in accordance with the International Health Regulations (2005). In the latest wave (the 6th wave since Oct 2017), only three human cases have been detected; meanwhile there have been generally fewer A(H7N9) virus detections in poultry and environment samples, according to various reports from mainland China and China, Hong Kong SAR. WHO has been monitoring the situation, and conducting risk assessments2 through...
Source: WHO Avian Influenza - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: avian influenza [subject], bird flu, avian flu, fowl plague, influenza in birds, avian bird flu, h5n1, disease outbreaks [subject], outbreak, outbreaks, epidemics, pandemic, disease control, influenza [subject], flu, seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza Source Type: news
Abstract In-host mutation of a cross-species infectious disease to a form that is transmissible between humans has resulted with devastating global pandemics in the past. We use simple mathematical models to describe this process with the aim to better understand the emergence of an epidemic resulting from such a mutation and the extent of measures that are needed to control it. The feared outbreak of a human-human transmissible form of avian influenza leading to a global epidemic is the paradigm for this study. We extend the SIR approach to derive a deterministic and a stochastic formulation to describe the evolu...
Source: Theoretical Population Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Theor Popul Biol Source Type: research
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